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Press Release – Watch Us Tv In Germany, Middle East, And Italy For Us Expats!

US TV via IPTV delivery for US expats living overseas that provides quality reliable Near HD and HD programming with over 250 channels of live American programming streaming with 2Mbps guaranteed bandwidth to each Customer’s set-top box is here with Habu.TV.

Talking with Mr. Clay Cook, the CEO/Chairman of Vision One Global Communications, a full-service communications provider to the the large contingent of US military and expats living overseas, says “what separates us from the other companies offering similar services is that we are not spliting the signal before or after the cable box. Sure there are also free download sites all over the net, but you often get what you pay for and those free sites are unreliable and questionable quality in the best of times.” He goes on to say that being able to provide the set-top box solution with the Nationphone proprietary network and “one-to-one” signal from provider to subscriber complies not only with the law, but gives the Customer the strongest signal possible and the best viewing experience.”

“We are recieving great response from the expat markets here in Germany, Italy, and the Middle East. The word is out that now we have it…and are live. With over 250 channels of quality US TV programming streamed directly to anywhere in the world utilizing Nationphone’s platform with an actual set-top box solution to your TV and or computer, you can now watch all of your favorite TV shows, dramas, pro-sports, college sports, movies, news, entertainment. Our channel line-up includes: Every HBO, Showtime, Cinemax, Netflix, ESPN, FOX, ABC, NBC, CBS, BET, MTV, digital music radio with every genre, Sci-FI, Discovery, Disney, History, Nat Geo, and so much more! Add to that a 100 hour DVR/Tivo on every cable box and you can time-shift your favorite shows and watch them at your convenience…all accessed either by our PC soft or set-top box on your TV.”

We asked Mr. Cook what separates your service from the rest of the pack of base cable services being offered in Europe? “Well, simply put, quality and the entire solution”. Legalities are always a major concern; and “with our legal team in New York, we believe that we have met all guidelines and criteria based on current laws on the books covering IPTV. The real difference here is that every Customer is simultaneously subscribed for an actual cable subscription of 250 Ch. from Time Warner cable; so in effect, you are complying with the laws by just “time-shifting” your own cable subscription and watching it elswhere. In the country where the Expat will view the service, the local laws aren’t infringed upon because we are not broadcasting in that country.”

Bandwidth is the main stumbling block that will prevent IPTV service in some areas in the developing world because the signal is carried through your Internet connection. In countries in Europe and the Middle East the bandwidth is “pretty good”, says Clay. “However, in places like Asia and some Eastern Bloc nations, you will need to ensure you have at least 512 kbps reliable connection to be able to view our service”.

“The good news for our expat and military Customer is you can watch before you buy. You can go to our site and click to view free demo. We will send them back the instructions with 2 or 3 hours of viewing so they can see for themselves whether or not their connection will support it.”, says Clay

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THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EURO-DOLLAR MARKET

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EURO-DOLLAR MARKET

A. Introduction

The development of the Euro-dollar market* (see endnote) can arguably be described as one of the most important transformations in international financial activity. However, very little is known or written about its origins. This paper will explain some of the controversies that have surrounded the market?s development. What are the factors and the main issues that appear to have been relevant to the market?s development? Using an analytical framework, several concepts will be introduced involving, the size of the Euro-dollar market, the factors responsible for the growth of the Euro-dollar market, and a brief history of international finance, looking at the historical perspective from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. As it seems that these very concepts has important implications for how factors are interpreted when considering the ?actual? origins of its early development.

B. A ?brief history? of the Euro-dollar Market

Many developments in the 1960s-1970s coincided with the birth and expansion of the Euro-markets. This had became a key means through which the City of London could sustain its position as an international financial centre, as well as a means for US banks to develop their international business and avoid many of the capital controls imposed in the USA in the 1960s. The Euro-markets were the first relatively free international capital and money markets, to be created after the Second World War, and the emergence of the market has been crucial to the internationalisation of money capital. As both Susan Strange and Jeffry Frieden have shown that, the creation and growth of this market was a product of the US and UK government policy. The off-shore governments now constitute a huge wealth of mobile capital, which is serving to erode the ?international and domestic, economic and political underpinnings of the post-war world order? .

Political support for the off-shore markets in the 1960s stemmed from their growing importance in the short and long term financing of the operations of the international multinational firms, many of whom had influence in US politics in the 1960s. Due to the openness of the City of London, the markets grew quickly, creating a similarity of interests between the City and New York finance. However, Helleiner argues , that the Euro-dollar market was a means for the US government to allay fears concerning ?seigniorage? gains accruing from the dollar, because the market was outside the direct control of the USA. Also, the Euro-dollar market became attractive to the oil-exporting states, who deposited their massive increased earnings in the London offshore markets, whose value expanded ?to over $1 trillion ($1000 billion) by 1994. Its appeal for the oil states was that it was apparently beyond the reach of the US government; it was movable, it was secret; and it paid a handsome and floating rate of interest? . The growth of the markets was paralleled by an enormous exploitation in the demand for and supply of credit, even when real interest rates rose dramatically in the 1980s.

A key time was in the early 1970s, between the USA and the other major states . The USA wanted to implement a more fully liberal financial system, whereas the others favoured collective action and more substantial international co-operation. The USA sought to devalue its foreign debts by a dollar depreciation, and force other countries to expand to absorb increases in US exports (this was the 1971 strategy, which was repeated in 1985 and again in 1992). Other countries were forced to accept the implications of the new US unilateralism, because of the renewed centrality of the USA in the global political economy. In particular, to the US centrality in the international financial system, which was caused by the international role of the dollar as the major reserve currency and international unit of account; by the depth and liquidity of the US financial markets; and the fact that the offshore markets were largely Euro-dollar markets .

Thus, due to the aggressive and unilateral approaches, the USA was able to sustain its ability to pursue a relatively autonomous macro-economic policy, with foreigners underwriting US deficits, by holding dollars, as well as to internationalise the costs of US adjustment (in relation to the oil shocks of the 1970s). An interesting point was made by Helleiner, citing a CIA report arguing that, the USA would receive the majority of OPEC funds for precisely those reasons, and that therefore OPEC, like Europe and Japan in the 1960s, would in effect support US policy autonomy .

Britain strongly supported the early growth of the Euro-dollar market in London. This provided an ?off-shore? regulation-free environment in which to trade financial assets denominated in foreign currencies, predominately dollars. In a world of extensive capital controls, it acted as a kind of ?adventure playground? for private bankers, marking a significant break from the tightly controlled pattern of financial relations characteristic of the world political economy since the war .

British support for the Eurodollar market was crucial, because it provided a physical base for the market, permitting it to operate in London, free from regulation. This support stemmed from a kind of a hegemonic ?lag? in the British state, in which financial officials and institutions, (particularly the Bank of England), remained strongly committed to promoting London?s role as an international financial centre, long after Britain?s days of financial predominance was over . As British capital markets were required upon the international use of sterling to defend the country?s weak balance of payments in the 1950s and 1960s, British officials recognised that London?s internationalism could best survive by allowing bankers to operate in foreign currencies, especially the US dollar. Once the market emerged, they actively supported its growth.

The 1970s saw several states granting market actors an extra degree of freedom by fully abolishing their systems of capital controls, such an example is the UK in 1979, and the US in 1974. This marked the beginning of the liberalisation trend. The UK?s decision stemmed in part from the strong neo-liberal orientation of the new Thatcher government in Britain, and in part a desire to increase the attractiveness of London as an International financial centre, by replicating its fully liberal status. The US strongly supported the early growth of the Euro-dollar market. This was important due to the dominant presence of US banks and corporations in the market. Although, it had power, the US government did not prevent these banks and firms from operating in the market. This approach had two roots:

First, the US banks and US multinational corporations demanded the freedom to operate offshore to compensate for the limitations on their freedom that stemmed from the introduction of US Capital Controls in the mid 1960s, and the constraints of domestic banking legislation dating from the depression of the 1930s. As the capital controls programme acted as a catalyst in encouraging US industrial interests to turn away from the restrictive Bretton Woods financial order. As the early 1970s showed, the US banks and the transnational corporations strongly supported neo-liberal approaches to finance, demanding not only the freedom to operate in the Euro-markets, but also the abolition of capital controls at home. Secondly, foreseeing the developments in the early 1970s, US policy-makers recognised that the unregulated nature of the Euro-dollar market would help increase the attractiveness of dollar holdings to private investors and foreign central banks, at a time of growing US balance-of-payments problems. So, support of the Euro-dollar market signalled an early recognition of the fact that, a more liberal international order would help finance growing US deficits, and preserve US central financial position in the world.

C. The size and growth of the Euro-dollar Market

One problem encountered throughout my research was that the initial emergence of the market was not very clear, due to the fact that statistics relating towards the total size of the Euro-dollar market were not collected by the BIS until 1963. However, it would be safe to acknowledge that the size of the market grew significantly from the late 1950s to the early 1960s. Nevertheless, the following offers an account towards the development of the Euro-dollar market.

US policy in the late 1960s was heavily concerned with financing military spending, particularly by printing dollars to finance the Vietnam War . In 1960, official dollar holdings exceeded US gold stocks by over 300%. So long as there was confidence in the health of the US economy, this ?dollar overhang? was considered manageable. However, growing US trade deficits began to reflect a loss of US competitive advantage as other economies had now fully recovered from the Second World War. The US balance of payments deficit had grown from $1.9 billion in 1965 to $10.6 billion in 1971. This led to the dilemma whereby the volume of dollars would have to be stemmed to ensure confidence in the system, but nevertheless, this could have precipitated a lack of credit in the system. Notably, while this was termed the ?Triffin Dilemma?, announced by the economist Robert Triffin, this essential problem was always common nature in a growing liberal economy.

During the time when the US balance of payments worsened in the 1960s, it instituted a series of capital controls, which led to the holding of dollars in banks outside the US . In 1964, the US passed the Interest Equalisation Tax to discourage foreign borrowers from raising money in the US market. The Foreign Credit Restraint Program of 1965, limited American bank loans to foreign borrowers. Finally, the Foreign Investment Program of 1968 restricted US corporations from using domestic dollars to fund foreign investments. These measures encouraged the establishment of an off-shore dollar market which became known as the Euro-market. The name derives from the telex sign-off of a Soviet dollar-denominated bank account in London, Eurobank. This Soviet Dollar holding was necessary for international commercial transactions by the USSR, since oil and other commodities are denominated in US dollars. The fear that the US would seize these funds if they were kept on US soil prompted the USSR to keep dollars outside the US . The notion that the federal government sought to regulate the effects of dollars deposited outside the United States upon monetary policy. As these dollars were outside the domestic banking system, the Federal Reserve had no jurisdiction (i.e. those deposits were not subject to reserve requirements set by the Fed). Various legislation, designed to limit the use of Eurodollar deposits by domestic companies ultimately drove the market overseas – intact and stronger than before.

Another argument was that, the surpluses of oil producing states (such as OPEC) and short-term deposits of multinational corporations, fuelled the development of the Euro-market industry. This was confirmed, by Born (1977) , and also Lees (1974) . The American Federal Reserve Act of 1937 did not permit banks to pay interest on sight-deposits, and interest rates on time-deposits could not exceed the rate set by the Federal Reserve. It was thus more profitable to deposit dollars in accounts outside the US. This point was developed by Windecker (1993) , and Smedresman and Lowenfeld (1989) , by stressing the size of the Euro-market industry. That the Euro-market grew at over 25% per annum through the 1970s, and between 1971 and 1984, the Euro-currency market grew from $85 billion to $2,200 billion. In 1988, the Euro-markets comprised of $4 trillion, which exceeded the domestic deposit market of the United States by $1 trillion.

Today, the vast majority of Eurodollar transactions are conducted in London. The Bank of England in 1964 stated that: ?Banks in London have been able to attract large sums in dollars by quoting better rates for deposits, including interest on money at call and short notice ? categories which earn nothing at all with New York ? and have employed them at less than the US lending rate and still made a worthwhile turn. They are able to operate on a fairly small profit margin because the additional overhead expenses of conducting their Eurodollar activities are minimal.

Throughout the 1960s, the markets grew at a great pace. Not only did they grow in size; they also spread geographically, moving to other centres in Europe and Asia. London nevertheless maintained its central role. (Table One, Table Two and Table Four offer an indication of the growth). A feature of the markets from their inception is the prominence of the US dollar. Table Three shows that, the dollar has consistently accounted for over 70% of the total markets. In the later 1960s, the dollar proportion was as high as 80%.

An important point to clarify was the ?deepness? of London as a financial centre. Whilst this role of long standing importance, the numbers of banks represented there increased steeply in the 1960s and 1970s. Table Four shows this, which records the number of foreign banks in London from 1967-1986. Initially, during the early 1960s, US banks came to London to ?tap? the Euro-markets for funds, which they would pass back to the US. Soon, American banks were building up a presence in London to avoid the Voluntary Foreign Credit Restraint programme (VFCR) restrictions imposed in 1964. In the 1970s, their numbers increased further as they began to participate in lending in the Euro-markets. Initially this participation was largely through consortium banks because they offered banks the ability to develop a specialist knowledge in the area of syndicated lending, whilst at the same time pooling risk with other large banks. Once this specialist knowledge was secured, the banks tended to pull out of these agreements as they established their own international departments, and set-up branches in London (if they were not represented in that form) .

Another factor which encouraged the US banks to invest in London, was emphasized in various studies , (and also from Table Four), was the liberal regulatory environment which foreign banks in London enjoyed. Throughout the period before exchange control, the Bank of England excluded abolition, foreign currency business with non-residents, from regulatory control. London retained its role as a financial centre by conducting business in non-sterling currencies.

D. Factors responsible to the Euro-dollar Market

There are specific factors were are said to have been directly responsible for the development of the Euro-dollar market. In specific were: the return to convertibility; the US balance of payments; US monetary policy and capital controls; the breakdown of the Bretton Woods and the floating exchange rates; recycling and the international debt crisis; and the Inter-bank Market and Financial Innovations. These will be explained in greater detail.

1. The return to convertibility and associated events

The summer of 1957 witnessed a key initial boost to the market with the sterling crisis. The Bank of England re-imposed restrictions on the granting of external sterling credits: in particular, they prohibited the sterling financing of non-UK trade. It had been usual for banks in London and indeed other European centres to provide their customers with dollar deposits, but up until 1957, they had been reinvested in the US . As the restrictions were re- introduced to limit UK banks? ability to use sterling for external purposes (such as; trade credit), they resorted to using dollars for their external operations.

Progressively during the 1950s there has been a change in the US balance of payments, with the large persistent surplus of 1945-50 being replaced by a deficit by 1957 . This deficit resulted in increased foreign holdings of dollars; ?by mid-1958, a European Market in dollar deposits and loans had become established? .

The return of convertibility in Europe at the end of 1958, with its associated relaxation of exchange controls, gave a further motive to the market. It permitted an increase in the supply of privately held dollars, which could now be swapped into local currency. Foreign exchange markets became more active, encouraging arbitrage between the various Euro-currencies and national markets, and potentially increasing the extent of financial integration and interdependence.

2. The US balance of payments

As noted in the previous point, a basic deficit on the US balance of payments emerged in the late 1950s. The net outflow on the long-term capital account had been running at between $2 and $2.5 billion per year between 1959 and 1963, and increased thereafter because of US companies? direct investment overseas . There had been much debate concerning the role, if any, played by the deficit in the growth of the Euro-dollar market. Friedmen (1969) , argued that the deficit was neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for the market?s growth. It was not necessary, because one could point to the case of West Germany, and the existence of a market in Euro-DM despite the German balance of payments surplus. It was not sufficient because, although a deficit provided dollar holdings for foreigners, it could not be presumed that they would be held in the form of Euro-dollar deposits. This depended on the expected return on such deposits relative to other investments.

Klopstock (1970) , suggested that the deficit had been an important source of funds for the growth of the market. He implied that the source was central banks rather than private individuals. Such as: when individuals went to exchange domestic currency into dollars, to make deposits with Euro-banks (that is banks dealing in Euro-currencies), they drew on central bank holdings of dollars, which were the result of the US deficit. In addition, central banks placing monetary reserves in the Euro-dollar market were also employing dollars accumulated as a consequence of the deficit.

This was further acknowledged by the BIS in 1964 , which argued that the deficit was useful in the market?s initial period of growth, but that once the market had become established, dollars were directly attracted to it from US residents. This added to the US deficit.

3. Monetary Policy and capital controls in the US

In an attempt to deal with the worsening balance of payments, the US authorities introduced the Interest Equalisation Tax in 1963 to discourage foreign bond issues in New York, and this was followed by the Voluntary Foreign Credit Restraint (VFCR) programme and the Foreign Direct Investment regulations in 1965. Limitations were placed on loans to foreigners and investment in other foreign assets. The programme applied only to businesses located in the US, so resulting in a shift of operations to foreign branches of US firms and in particular to the Euro-dollar market . The role of the external deficit in this instance was an indirect one, in contrast to the direct role it played in the initial development of the market.

The conditions under the VFCR programme, credits to non-residents by US banks? offices in the US were limited during 1965 to 105% of their December 1964 level. These restraints continued in a similar fashion throughout the rest of the 1960s. The limits led overseas borrowers to turn to the Euro-dollar market, which in turn helped to keep Euro-dollar interest rates at a relatively high level. Johnston (1983) quotes evidence from Brimmer and Dahl (1975) on the resulting growth of overseas branches of US banks. In 1964, the number of US banks with branches overseas was 11: this had increased to 79 in 1970. Over the same period, the assets of overseas branches increased from $6.9 billion to $52.6 billion, and the number of overseas branches increased from 181 to 536. The effect of the US and other regulators on capital flows, was to shift emphasis of international banking away from national banking systems to the Euro-banks.

The second effect of US monetary policy was through Regulation Q . This prohibited the payment of interest on demand deposits, as well as authorising the Federal Reserve to set a maximum interest rate payable on savings and time deposits in US banks. During 1966 and 1969, the Federal Reserve relied to a great extent on the operation of Regulation Q to enforce tight monetary policy. Normally, the ceiling set by the Federal Reserve was inoperable because market interest rates were lower than the ceiling rate. In contrast, in times of tight monetary policy, interest rates rose and would have risen above the ceiling were it not for its existence. The mechanism through which this operated can be described as follows:

The level of interest rates in the money supply was raised through slowing down the growth of the money supply. However, while money market interest rates rose, the interest rates payable on time deposits, were held down by the ceiling. Investors moved their time deposits from the banking system, causing the banks to experience a shortage of funds. The banks then looked to the Euro-dollar market for funds, and in 1966, when money was tight, borrowing from European Branches of US banks by their head offices rose by $2.5 billion. Nevertheless, banks began to regard the market as a substitute source of dollars even when Regulation Q was not effective as in 1967. Funds raised through this method were then used to continue lending to customers in the US.

Regulation Q, as the BIS recognised , stimulated the growth of the Euro-dollar market in two ways: firstly, it reinforced the market?s ability to offer higher interest rates on deposits ? even deposits at call. Two other reasons why they could offer higher interest rates were that Euro-banks operated on lower margins; and the effect of domestic reserve requirements. Secondly, the growth of the market was stimulated because of the demand for dollars from commercial banks in the US in order to go around domestic credit restraint policies.

This leads to a third important component of policy: that of reserve requirements. Domestic banks, for reason of monetary control, are subject to reserve requirements on deposits. In the period up to 1969, the Euro-dollar market was exempted from this requirement. This allowed Euro-banks to offer higher deposit rates. This advantage was further heightened by the fact that Euro-banks did not need to hold large precautionary reserves, because of an efficient inter-bank market. Euro-banks could earn a return on all their deposits, through re-lending. In June 1969, the US government imposed what was effectively a 10% marginal reserve requirement on Euro-dollar borrowings. This was an attempt to reduce the rate of repayments by ensuring that if the US banks did not repay, and subsequently re-borrowed from the market, the cost of such borrowing would have substantially increased . The reserve requirement was applicable on the amount by which US bank borrowings from foreign branches exceeded their level of 28 May 1969. On 30 November 1970, the Federal Reserve increased the marginal reserve requirement to 20%. The measure proved to be ineffective since US interest rates continued to fall, causing the cost of maintaining Euro-dollar borrowing to become too expensive.

In January 1974, the US removed the capital controls in had introduced in the 1960s. As mentioned before, the imposition of the controls stimulated the Euro-dollar market. In effect, their removal also enhanced the market in the same respects. After, the removal of the controls, US banks could freely arbitrage between the US domestic market and the Euro-dollar market. This led to a greater integration of the national and Euro-currency segments of the dollar market. Johnston (1983) argues that the removal of capital market controls in West Germany in 1974, and in the UK in 1979 had a similar effect in integrating the Euro-DM and the Euro-Sterling markets with their respective national markets.

4. The Breakdown of the Bretton Woods and the floating of exchange rates

A major economic event of 1971 was the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates. The official link between the dollar and gold was broken, and the exchange rate parities re-aligned under the Smithsonian Agreement (December 1971). As it became clear, that there might be further re-alignment with a devaluing of the US dollar, there was a demand to borrow dollars to buy stronger European currencies. After the UK decision to float (June 1972), Germany and Switzerland imposed capital controls and more restrictive monetary policy to reduce inflation. An intensified dollar outflow resulted, and the dollar was devalued a second time in February 1973. In the following month, when the flight from the dollar continued, European countries decided to move to floating exchange rates.

Bell (1973) , pointed out that the inflows into Europe in 1970 and 1971, led to increases in European central bank? holdings of dollars. The Bundesbank was affected to a greater extent than other central banks, and this was reinforced after February 1971 by speculative pressure against the dollar, and in favour of the DM and to a lesser extent the Swiss-Franc (SFr). Given, that the dollar inflows from the underlying US balance of payments deficit, were perhaps only a quarter of the total dollar flow in Western Europe, and Japan over the year to August 1971 , the Euro-dollar market may have greatly magnified the problem of the dollar. Bell concludes that the existence of the Euro-dollar market probably caused re-alignment and the subsequent breakdown to occur sooner than it would have done in the absence of a Euro-dollar market.

5. Recycling and the International Debt Crisis

Shortly after the breakdown of the Bretton woods system, the quadrupling of oil prices created both a demand and a supply stimulus to the Euro-market. The IMF?s oil fund facility was inadequate to meet the resulting demand for balance of payments deficit financing, especially by the non-oil developing countries. However, with the breakdown of the pegged rate international monetary system, there was little hope for an international political initiative on the problem of balance of payments adjustment. The partial placement of OPEC surpluses, amounting in 1974 to some $58 billion with the Euro-dollar market, providing an obvious and politically convenient channel for capital to be removed from surplus to deficit countries .

The Euro-dollar market was attractive because it offered slightly higher deposit rates on funds placed short-term, allowing good returns to be made, whilst the OPEC countries decided what long term investments they wished to undertake. Along with this, there were political advantages for OPEC to be able to invest dollars in Europe rather than in the US.

6. The Inter-bank Market and Financial Innovations

The domestic and the international markets have two major components: the inter-bank mechanism, and the channeling of funds from initial depositors to ultimate borrowers. However, in the Euro-markets, the former plays a far more important role, with respects to the latter, in which the markets introduced important innovations.

In the Euro-markets, the inter-bank market accounts for around 70% of the bank?s aggregate liabilities. In the case of, for example, the US domestic markets, the Federal Funds inter-bank market accounts for only 12.5% of the aggregate liabilities of US banks . The existence of such a large inter-bank market allows banks to match the inflow and outflow of funds from deposits and loans by lending excess funds or borrowing to meet lending commitments. This reduces the need to maintain a stock of liquid assets which would act as a safety margin.

Ellis (1981) further developed this point by adding that, there is much variety in the reliance on inter-bank funds between different banks. The larger, better known banks, tend to have a smaller percentage of their foreign currency liabilities in the inter-bank market with American banks for example, over the period 1978-81, the percentage varied between 42% and 54%. This is in contrast with the consortium banks whose reliance on the inter-bank market over the same period was about 80%. Another feature is that, these better known banks were not borrowers. Ellis (1981) concludes that, ?the very large inter-bank segment of the Euro-market performs a necessary and valuable role in linking non-bank depositors and lenders in different parts of the world? .

The general efficiency of the inter-bank mechanism in allowing banks access to funds at very short notice, as well as allowing them to place funds in the market for very short periods to earn some interest, helps to reduce the transactions and information costs in the Euro-currency markets. This also allows them to operate on smaller margins. However, Ellis (1981), also recognises that the inter-bank mechanism has led to increased interdependence, increasing the speed at which crisis might spread through the system.

Two innovations, which are associated with lending to non-banks, and which have facilitated the expansion of the Euro-currency markets, are roll-over credits and the syndicated loan system.

The introduction of roll-over credits reduces the risk of interest rates moving against a bank when it tends to borrow short and long-term. It enables banks to offer higher interest rates on short-term deposits, whilst at the same time being able to commit these funds long-term, through reducing the risk of making losses if deposit rates should rise again. On the borrower?s side of the market, such roll over credits imply that interest rates at the time of borrowing are less important, because if they should fall over the course of the loan, the borrower should reap the benefits. Naturally, the borrower will also pay the cost if interest rates rise.

The second innovation is that of syndication of loans. ?A syndicated credit is a loan in which a group of financial institutions makes funds available on common conditions to a borrower . It allows credits of larger sizes (over $1 billion in some cases), to be put together, a factor that was especially important in the financing of national balance of payments deficits.

In the lender?s point of view, it reduces the risks of international bank lending , through diversification of loans to political entities. It also provides more protection against selective defaults: unwillingness of a nation to repay its debts will be met with pressure from several countries, whose banks are involved. Negotiations were also feasible, because at the same time, there are few enough creditors involved. On the other hand, a possible danger of the process, which has become increasingly recognised, is that in the event of a default, the repercussions will be spread over a wide part of the Euro-currency system. This has raised questions regarding the stability of the international banking system.

E. Economic factors

Many scholars on Euro-dollars had one thing in common, the fact that: overwhelming strong regulatory action, only served to drive a useful market from the US, moving dollars into off-shore bank accounts, while failing in its intended purpose to limit the effects of Eurodollars on the banking system. The events which led the financial system from this heavy regulated one to the ?explosion? of finance, in which the US paved the way for the development of the market led international monetary system (M-IMS), and a government-controlled monetary system (G-IMS), have been recounted by a number of scholars. In particular: Susan Strange , Eric Helleiner , Phil Cerny , and Geoffrey Underhill .

Another interesting point was that the Euro-dollar market has shown the capacity to adapt itself to changing conditions, and had emerged as a truly international short-term money market, providing attractive opportunities for short term investment, while at the same time relative cheap access to short term finance. The Bank of England (1964) , developed this further by stating that, evidence of the advantage of the market to both givers and takers of deposits is provided by the magnitude of the growth of foreign currency liabilities and claims of banks in London, which has become the principal centre. The market has helped to stimulate banking competition and reduce interest rates in the main borrowing countries; and has probably added to the total funds available for the finance of international business. In addition, the article shows that the Bank of England has took the position that even though there are risks involved, the UK authorities had not discouraged London banks from participating in this business, relying on their good judgement in the way they conduct their operations.

However, a major question, still being argued about today, is whether Euro-dollar deposits provide a possibility for multiple deposit creation, in the way cash deposits do in domestic banking systems? Bell (1964) provides an answer by arguing that ?the Euro-dollar market, by the process of intermediation, can increase the flow of international credit and can thus affect total world demand in a meaningful sense. Moreover, the market could, under certain conditions, act in the same manner as a domestic banking system, and from a given flow of dollars from the United States, increase the total stock of world dollar liquidity by some multiple?.

As far as the balance of payments was concerned, for both the UK and for the US, there was no doubt that high interest rates in the Euro-dollar market had caused private non-residents of the US to hold bigger dollar balances, which lessened the flow of US dollars to official monetary institutions, Christie (1967) . This action had benefited the US payments balance on an official settlement definition . Various risks had arisen from the market, particularly the increased dimensions of ?hot money? flows, and the encouragement it gives reserve currency countries to delay correction of their payments imbalance, Reading (1967) . One main risk was the sheer global exposure of the Euro-dollar market itself, and the dangers exposed to the UK. As, no one country could exercise control of the market, in a sense that, Euro-dollar deposits were no longer used solely for trade-finance, and hence were not self-cancelling. Due to the extent of the value of trade in Euro-dollars, a breakdown would inevitably throw doubt on sterling, as the market is ?running an extensive banking business on very limited reserves and are thus in a very exposed position? . Another risk is that a collapse of the Euro-dollar market could unsettle the entire international financial system, seriously undermining both trade and capital flows.

However, one of the roles of the Euro-dollar is that, it enables countries with deficits to finance rather than correct them, and the Euro-dollar plays a part as an underminer of national monetary policies, as well as the irritant factor in inter-national interest rate wars, Chalmers (1968) . The significance has been to emphasise the unfavourable side effects of the Euro-dollar. The development of the market has undoubtedly enlarged short-term capital movements, giving deficit countries greater opportunity to ?mask? rather than cure their deficits; and in doing so they have ultimately jeopardised international monetary stability. Chalmers stated further that these flows of Euro-dollars have spread the contagion of high interest rates; and an irritant factor in this has been the particular inter-relationship which the market with the US monetary system. Chalmers concludes that the existence of the Euro-dollar has made the task of monetary policy more difficult and even less effective.

The risk aspect is an important factor as it suggests the need for an international body to act, not only as a lender of last resort, but also as a regulatory agency, as noted by Clendenning (1968) . The risks and problems associated with the Euro-dollar market make themselves visible at three levels: the individual bank, the individual country and the level of the international financial system as a whole. An individual bank?s main risk is the possibility that a borrower may not repay his Euro-dollar loan. This is always a risk facing any bank in its commercial banking operations. However, the Euro-dollar market, due to its international nature, and its long chain of transactions involved in most Euro-dollar operations, has added a new dimension to this risk. In their domestic operations (also in foreign operations in their own currency), most commercial banks lend directly to their own customers with whom they are in close contact. Consequently, they have at their disposal considerable information about the financial standing of these borrowers, and the proposed use of the borrowed funds. Leading to the point, in the case of Euro-dollar operations, commercial banks are dealing in large unsecured loans denominated in US dollars. This kind of operation undoubtedly, involves a greater risk of default than, the ordinary domestic banking operations.

The determination of the Euro-dollar rate, had been an issue that had interested many economists, with many offering a comparison between the US domestic and the Euro-dollar markets. One such example had been the impact of US monetary policy on the Euro-dollar market. Using monthly data, involving the Euro-dollar rate, from January 1961 to March 1971, Argy and Hodjera (1973) highlight the impact of Regulation Q. Their research found that during the periods when Regulation Q was effective, there was a resemblance. As for every 1% the market rate was above the ceiling rate, the Eurodollar rate would rise by 0.4%. This was further supported by Kwack (1971) , Hendershott (1967) , and Mills (1984) , which agreed that changes in the US interest rate has a great influence on changes in the Euro-dollar interest rate.

Other works offered comparisons between the Euro-dollar and the UK Domestic rates. Herring and Marston (1977) , found that, during the periods in the 1960s, a 1% rise in the Euro-dollar rate would bring about a 0.44% rise in the UK money market rates. This suggested that there was some degree of interdependence between the two markets. Rich (1972) concluded that the significance of the UK Treasury Bill rate and of the exchange rate, ?supports the view that Euro-dollar assets are close substitutes for sterling…assets?. He further suggests that the development of the Euro-dollar markets has led to a greater degree of financial integration between the US and the UK interest rates.

F. Conclusion

The City of London was a highly successful international commercial, banking and financial centre, despite growing fears of competition from other centres. It presented strength, derived largely from the generalised ?trust? with which the world views the City. The survival and revival of London as an international financial centre after the disruptions of the Second World War and the weakness of sterling as an international reserve currency had been largely based upon the development of the Euro-currency markets. In specific the growth of new or ?parallel? markets alongside the old ?classic? discount market, which with the relative decline of sterling as an international currency, had become a domestic concern. These new markets had revitalised the foreign exchange markets in response to the emergence of barriers of various kinds between ultimate borrowers and lenders. On the one hand, the domestic parallel money market in sterling evolved out of responses which were intended to evade the credit restrictions which successive British governments had attempted to impose during the 1960s through their participation in the old discount market. On the other hand, the decline of sterling and the difficulties associated with the US governments? restrictions on the use of the dollar as an international currency gave rise to new markets in Euro-dollars and other Euro-currencies. New money markets where money is lent and borrowed between banks, companies and other organisations without the control of the monetary authorities (governments and central banks). It is a measure of the City?s autonomy that such developments can take place.

The imposition of credit restrictions in the 1960s in order to reduce the balance of payments deficit and preserve the value of sterling occurred at a time when both government and private expenditure were increasing, and this resulted in the growth of the new markets. After WW2, US dollars began to flow steadily to Europe by means of the operations of American multinational corporations, and the trade deficits of the USA with European countries. In addition, interest rates in the USA were held down by the government (Regulation Q) and the European banks (especially London?s merchant banks), were able to bid higher rates of interests for these dollars. Furthermore, the US? capital controls (in particular the interest equalisation tax) effectively closed New York to foreign borrowers, who turned to London. The availability of ?off-shore? dollars to the City closely followed on the abrupt and final demise of sterling in one of its most traditional roles (the financing of international trade between non-UK residents). The UK?s balance of payments problems had culminated in the 1957 sterling crisis, and consequently led to a sharp rise in interest rates in order to attract sterling to the UK, (in other words, there were too few UK pounds in circulation to perform old functions).

The merchant banks simply turned to the expatriate dollars, and used them in the way they have used sterling, operating freely on a global scale in the financing of international trade and the arrangement of longer term loans. American and other foreign banks wanting to take advantage of the paucity of financial controls in the UK soon joined this new market that was dominated by the merchant banks. Hence, between 1967-1978 the representation of foreign banks in London grew from 113 to 395. As, for the City?s banks, the establishment of sterling convertability in 1958 ?was arguably the most important event of this century?, for it heralded the rise of the London Euro-dollar market.

To conclude, there are certain important consequences of the rise of the Euro-dollar markets. The first, is the shift in the financial system from one depending on a state to manage the flow of international liquidity, to a system where liquidity is provided by private banks. As previously noted, where international financial systems were threatened with a lack of credit, there is now, excess international liquidity, and private bank lending provides this. In 1980, the US inter-bank loan market stood at $74 billion, this almost doubled to $170 billion by 1995. The international inter-bank lending market by contrast had grown to $5.8 trillion by June 1995 .

However, much of the risks in international banking today, have been confronted through past historical processes of domestication and harmonisation. As, in December 1981, pressure from US banks for deregulation, led to International banking Facilities (IBFs), so that banks on US soil could compete with off-shore banking. It is important to recognise that the ?race to the bottom? in regulation has taken place mainly outside the OECD countries. Don Marshall (1996) explained, ?competition between states to attract and retain finance-capital has intensified, with peripheral countries seeking to make their sites more attractive to investment?. There are many ?off-shore financial centres? such as the Bahamas, Bermuda, Antigua, Cayman Islands and Barbados, which maintain lax regulatory regimes. However, the OECD countries control more than 80% of the lending market, and their banks? share of the world total as assets and liabilities has continued to grow, while that of offshore centres has grown less quickly, and those of developing countries has remained almost static .

While it may not have been the intention of the US government in the 1960s and the 1970s to drive dollars into off-shore bank accounts, it did believe that the Euro-market would provide a quasi-Keynesian ?clearing house? function to redistribute money from surplus nations to deficit nations. According to Eric Helleiner (1992) , by the mid 1960s, ?US officials were in fact actively encouraging US banks and corporations to move their operations to the off-shore London market?. In doing so, American banks would not lose business while at the same time, the government could pursue its policies of adjusting its economy. Some of the earlier articles , tend to be fairly complimentary about the Euro-dollar market, accepting it as making a valuable addition to world liquidity, although noting the attendant ?banking? risks, which became apparent from the failure of one or two links in unsecured on-lending chains. The critical approach to the market can also clearly be detected, and it was considered a desirable phenomenon. As, when British Prime Minister Harold Wilson introduced his crisis package of July 1966, he laid part of the blame for the pressure on sterling on withdrawals of Euro-dollar deposits in London. He said: ?Action taken by the United States? authorities has led to an acute shortage of dollars and Euro-dollars in world trade and this has led to a progressive rise in interest rates and to the selling of sterling to replenish dollar balances? . As the Euro-dollar market grew up quite simply from private financial institutions pursuing their own self-interests, as well as those of their clients. This of course, was no guarantee that they were also necessarily furthering the best interests of national and international economies.

Some governments and monetary authorities recognised this at an early stage and took action to insulate the impact of the Euro-dollar on their monetary systems. In Britain, the authorities have for the most part pursued a ?laissez-fare? policy, primarily not wishing to hinder London?s international banking role, but also glad of the opportunity. As the British Government was keen to promote London as a financial centre, and bankers in the city were ?eager to capture international business without being constrained by sterling controls?. Helleiner concluded that the globalisation of finance was supported by states through ?granting freedom to market actors through liberalisation initiatives? and choosing not to implement more effective controls on financial movements?, because it suited their interests.

ENDNOTE

* Here are two very similar definitions of the term Euro-dollars:

? Robert Gilpin, (The Political Economy of International Relations, Princetown University Press, 1987, p. 314-315), states that: ?The Euro-dollar market received its name from American dollars on deposit in European (especially in London) banks yet remaining outside the domestic monetary system, and the stringent control of national monetary authorities?.

? Enzig and Quinn (The Euro-dollar System: practice and theory of international interest rates, MacMillan Press, 6th edition, 1977, p. 1) state that: ?the Euro-dollar system is a term used to describe the market in dollar deposits and credits which exists outside the United States of America?.

1. Jeffry Frieden, Banking on the World, New York, Harper and Row, 1987.

2. Jeffry Frieden, Banking on the World, p80.

3. E. Helleiner, American Hegemony and Global Economic Structure: from Closed to Open Financial Relations in the Postwar World, London School of Economics, 1991.

4. Susan Strange, States and Markets, London, Pinter, 1988, p105.

5. In specific the Group of Ten meetings of finance ministers (so called: Rich Men?s Club) during the 1970s, following President Nixon?s decision in August 1971, to end the convertibility of dollars into gold and thus terminate the regime of fixed parities, or pegged exchange rates anchored around the US dollar. Attempts to return to fixed exchange rates ( such as the Smithsonian meeting of December 1971) quickly failed, and the world moved to a regime of flexible exchange rates.

6. Susan Strange, Casino Capitalism, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1986.

7. E. Helleiner, American Hegemony and Global Economic Structure: from Closed to Open Financial Relations in the Postwar World, London School of Economics, 1991.

8. Quote from Susan Strange, Finance, Information and Power, Review of international studies, No 16, 1990, p264.

9. This phrase hegemonic ?lag? is used by Stephen Krasner, State Power and the structure of International Trade, World Trade, no 28, 1976, p341-343.

10. Joan Spero, The Politics of International Relations, 3rd edition, St. Martins Press, New York, 1985, p68-69.

11. For further details see: Francis A. Lees, International banking and finance, Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1974, p100-106.

12. PRO: HW 15 28: Moscow and US Dollars, 19/3/1945.

13. Karl Erich Born, International Banking in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Berg Publishers Ltd, Warwickshire, 1977, p203

14. Francis A. Lees, International banking and finance, p297-312

15. George H. Windecker, The Euro-dollar Deposit Market: Strategies for Regulation, The American University Journal of International Law and Policy, Vol. 9, Fall 1993, p278

16. Peter Smedresman and Andreas F. Lowenfeld, Eurodollars, Multinational Banks, and National Laws, New York University Law Review, Vol. 64, 1989, p751-761

17. Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, June 1964

18. See A. F. Brimmer and F. R. Dahl (Growth of American International Banking: implications for public policy, JF, no: 30(2), 1975, p341-63), and Buttrill-White: (Foreign Banking in the United States: a regulatory and supervisory perspective, FRBNY Quarterly Review, Summer 1982).

19. A consortium bank is owned by a group of (around five) other banks, usually large banks, which are well established in their own domestic markets.

20. The Banker, May 1983, p10

21. Such as: Brimmer and Dahl (1975), and Buttrill-white (1982)

22. See G. McKenzie, The Economics of the Eurocurrency System, Macmillan, London, (1976) p. 88

23. The liquidity balance method of calculating the US balance of payments was the most widely used measure by the authorities, (see W. Clendenning, The Eurodollar Market, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1970). It is essentual to divide the balance of payments into two sections: (1) net autonomous transactions; (2) net balance of compensatory financial transactions. 24. Represents the deficit/surplus. The main problem was determining whether short-term capital movements belonged to category (1) or (2). In the US, this was resolved by distinguishing between short-term capital flows initiated by residents and non-residents. If the latter altered the short-term assets that the non-resident held in the US, then it would fall into category (2). 25. If a resident made the same change, it would fall into category (1), and be an autonomous transaction.

26. See Johnston (1983), p. 10

27. See G. Bell, The Eurodollar Market and the International Financial System, Macmillan, London, (1973), p. 84

28. M. Friedman, The Euro-dollar Market: Some First Principles, Morgan Guaranty Survey, October 1969, p. 4-14

29. F. Klopstock, The Euro-dollar Market: Some Unresolved Issues, PEIF, no. 65, 1968

30. Bank for International Settlements, BIS Annual Report: 1964, 1964, p. 140

31. See Johnston, 1983, p. 14

32. A. F. Brimmer and F. R. Dahl, Growth of American International Banking: implications for public policy, JF, no: 30(2), 1975, p341-63

33. This regulation had its impact prior to 16 May 1973, when three-month maximum interest rate ceilings were abolished for time deposits over $100,000. This implied that US domestic assets that were substitutes for Euro-dollar deposits were no longer subject to Regulation Q.

34. Bank for International Settlements, BIS Annual Report, 1965

35. The effective cost of borrowing extra funds in the Euro-dollar market is derived by, dividing the actual Euro-dollar rate by the proportion of funds that can be loaned out.

36. See: G. Bell, The Eurodollar Market and the International Financial System, 1973

37. G. Bell, The Eurodollar Market and the International Financial System, 1973, p. 91

38. In 1974, the Euro-currency market accounted for about 25% of total financing requirement of deficit countries: other channels included direct investment, concessionary loans and other capital market finance, (see Johnston, 1983, p. 148). By 1979, Euro-markets accounted for 50% of financing.

39. J.C. Ellis, Eurobanks and the Interbank Market, BEQB, no. 21(3), 1981, p. 351-64

40. J.C. Ellis, Eurobanks and the Interbank Market, BEQB, no. 21(3), 1981, p. 360

41. L. S. Goodman, The pricing of syndicated Euro-currency credits, FRBNY Quarterly Review, No. 5(2), 1980, p. 39-49

42. Goodman points to one specific risk particularly associated with international banking, that of political risk associated with sovereign lenders that is, the lender may choose to default and the legal protection in this case is much less than in the case of a private lender?s default.

43. Susan Strange, Casino Capitalism, Blackwell, London 1986.

44. Eric Helleiner, Explaining the globalisation of financial markets, (also: states and the future of global finance), review of international studies, vol 18, no1, 1992, p315-341.

45. Phil Cerny, finance and world politics, the political economy in international finance, Edward Elgar, Aldershot

46. Geoffrey Underhill, Markets beyond Politics?, the State and the Internationalisation of Financial Markets, European journal of Political Research, vol 19, no 2-3, 1991.

47. Bank of England, UK Banks? External Liabilities and Claims in Foreign Currencies, Bank of England Quarterly Review, June 1964.

48. Bell, Geoffrey L., Credit Creation through Euro-dollars, The Banker, August 1964

49. Christie, Herbert, Euro-dollars and the Balance of Payments, The Banker, January 1967.

50. Which defines the balance as the change in reserve assets, and in liquid and non-liquid liabilities to foreign monetary institutions.

51. Reading, Brian, Euro-dollars ? Tonic or Toxic?, The Bankers? Magazine, November 1967

52. Reading, Brian, Euro-dollars ? Tonic or Toxic?, (1967)

53. Eric B. Chalmers, Monetary Policy Aspects of the Euro-dollar, UK Monetary Policy, June 1968

54. E. Wayne Clendenning, Euro-dollars: the Problem of Control, The Banker, April 1968

55. V. Argy and Z. Hodjera, Financial Integration and Interest Rate Linkages in Industrial Countries, 1958-71, IMF Staff Papers, 20 (1), p1-77, 1973

56. Sung Y Kwack, The structure of international interest rates: an extension of Hendershott?s test, Journal of Finance, No. 26, p897-900, 1971

57. Patric H, Hendershott, The Structure of the International Interest rates: US Treasury Bill Rate and the Euro-dollar deposit rate, Journal of Finance, No. 22, p455-65, 1967

58. R.H. Mills and H.S. Terrell, How Front-end Fees on Syndicated Euro-loans are determined, the Banker, no. 134, Dec 1984, p27-33

59. R. Herring and R. Marston, National Monetary Policies and International Financial Markets (also: Euro-Currencies and the International Monetary System-1976), North-Holland, American Institute for Public Policy Research, Washington 1977

60. G. Rich, A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Euro-dollar Market, JMCB, 4(3), 1972, p 633

61. International banking: coping with the ups and downs, The Economist, Survey, 27 April 1996, p15

62. Don D. Marshall, Understanding Late-Twentieth-Century Capitalism: Reassessing the Globalisation Theme, Government and Opposition, vol. 31. No2, 1996, p193-215. See also: Marshall, Tax Havens in the Commonwealth Caribbean: a merchant capital-global finance connection, Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations, vol 10, no 3, 1996, p255-280

63. Industry and Trade Summary: Commercial Banking, USITC Publication 2638 (SV-4), June 1993, p26

64. Eric Helleiner, Explaining the globalisation of financial markets, (also: states and the future of global finance), review of international studies, vol 18, no1, 1992, p315-341.

65. Articles such as: Bell, (credit creation through Euro-dollars, The Banker, August 1964); and Christie, (Euro-dollars and the Balance of Payments, The Banker January 1967).

66. Hansard, 20 July 1966, Column 628

67. Eric Helleiner, Explaining the globalisation of financial markets, 1992, p315-341.

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Travelling by Train For those of us who have traveled through airports we’ve all experienced long delays at due to postponed flights or been held up in long queue’s waiting to check in. That’s why trains are a fantastic way to travel Europe. They’re fast, travelling at speeds of up to 175 mph or around 300 kilometers per hour, efficient, and user friendly. There’s no arriving at terminals waiting in airport lines for hours. I remember one experience I had at Rome’s Fiumicino airport, the largest airport in all of Italy, my friend and I had just returned from enjoying a visit to the south of Italy staying at Amalfi, a spectacular scenic town on the sea-side. Believe it or not, the night we arrived, we were awoken in our hotel room by a commotion of noise disturbing the silence. Not knowing what was happening, we ventured out onto the large outdoor terrace overlooking the sea. 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Train travel – Quick and Easy That’s one of the reasons train travel for me is appealing. Train stations amuse me especially major terminals through Europe. To me trains look like slug’s waiting for the starting gun to go off before racing to their next destination. Last year I wanted to try the Chunnel, The Eurostar high speed train travelling from Paris to London at around 185 via an under-water tunnel, which starts it’s journey in the middle of Paris, arriving in the center of London barely 2 hours later. What a fantastic way to go. Tickets start at around 54 depending on the time of year, offering a non flexible standard deal but if you want luxury, try the business class fully flexible for approximately 245. But I can assure you the basic standard trip is great. Seats are comfortable, carriages are spacious and there’s plenty of room for luggage. You even get offered a small snack on board. If you travel to the terminal by local Metro, this is where the benefits start. No cars, no traffic with connections available throughout the whole city. Arriving at the Paris Gare Du Nord Train terminal in the center of Paris, it’s easy steps all the way. Clearing customs is still necessary, so make sure you have all your relevant passports, visa’s and documents handy, then it’s into a holding room until the time arrives for the train to be boarded. It’s recommended arriving around 45 mins before departure but I leave nothing to chance, always making my way a little earlier. Entering the carriages are easy as they’re clearly numbered, seats are numbered, baggage is stored in your carriage and you’re ready to sit back, enjoy the scenery of a new country or read a book. Some people play cards, chat or simply relax before disembarking in another country at the St Pancreas International Terminal London, ready for connecting trains ready to take you anywhere you want to go. The best part is you don’t have to wait for luggage to be unloaded, standing around at a carousel watching everyone’s else’s bag circle except yours. It’s straight out of the carriage, bag in tow. Where else could you be in Paris for breakfast and shopping in London for the afternoon. If you really want you can be back in Paris or vice versa before the evening draws near. Magic! Beware of Strangers with Great Offers I’ve also learnt though to be on guard no matter how I travel or to where. I’ve experienced first hand on occasions, characters I can only presume of not good intention, preying on those they see as vulnerable. I no longer allow myself to believe those who approach me as reliable or honest, keeping on guard for reasons I’ll share. Several years ago at the Florence train station, I was taking the train across the Italian boarder to Nice in France. Sitting waiting patiently with my baggage I was approached by a man who seemed to be giving me instructions of how to validate my ticket. This ticket I had purchased the night before and to be honest had no idea I had to validate it but also knew he didn’t have a guard uniform on and questioned myself why he would care. He would gesture for me to give him my ticket then walk to the validating machine on the platform, mimicking what I should do. Several times he tried to take the ticket from my hands, when finally I walked away. I can only presume he would have taken my ticket, ran, boarded the train as the ticket had no name, and got a free ride from this unknowing victim, being me. Another time wanting to travel from the train station at Naples, again in Italy, my daughter and I were offered transport by whom we thought was a legitimate taxi driver. Wrong again! The car was old and dilapidated, and while I rode in the front my daughter was ushered into the back seat along with our baggage because from what I could see the boot didn’t close. Great stories to tell but it’s later you realize something could really have gone seriously wrong and erring on the side of caution is a wiser thing to do. There’s signs clearly stating it’s illegal for non taxi driver’s to offer rides, but I’ve seen them all over the world so caution really is the way to go. Train travel in my experience allows you to see country sides in all their splendor. Views from a carriage window enlighten the traveler of the way people live in those small towns and the beauty or diversity of the landscape. I hope if you get the chance, you enjoy this scenic travel mode as much as me. Suzanne Beck Men’s fashion style blog Solo travel adventures Men’s Formal Wear on a Budget

Ltc Tour Europe To Discover Incredible India Packages

LTC Tour Europe, Singapore LTC Tour, LTC Portblair Tour

LTC Tour Europe or the pink city is built mostly of red sand stone. This is the reason for its unique name. Rajasthan holiday packages will ensure that you visit the busy city of Jaipur for at least a day. Ensure that your package includes a tour of the city. Is it for a relaxed vacation by the beach, traveling to historical locations or to enjoy a cultural experience. It may include all three. In that case get in touch with a good travel agent online who can offer you a great package at a reasonable price to enjoy the mystic country, India. This little haven is found amidst the grueling desert state of Rajasthan. This is what makes it unique. The forts and palaces of Rajasthan do not only lie with Jaipur but the cities like Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. Online bookings are the easiest way to book Rajasthan holiday packages without having to run to a travel agent.

LTC Tour Europe and the city palace is monuments in the historical significance of this city. Built by Shah Jahan and his son, the city palace is a wondrously large palatial estate spread over acres of land. The Hawa Mahal is a building with over nine hundred windows. They are safe and quick and ensure you get the best experience of Rajasthan. Ensure that your experience of tourism in Rajasthan is holistic and rich with culture and city tours. Folk dances and fairs are the best way to understand and experience the warmth and heritage of the land. Bhutan holidays are guaranteed to be a calming and spiritual experience. Booking and confirming your reservation is vital before applying for your visa. Bhutan is dotted with several monasteries and is considered home to as many as two hundred of them.

LTC Tour Europe you can either fly up to Paro or opt to take the route to Phuentsholing. This beautiful country is full of breathtaking landscape and scenery. More than seventy percent of this land is forest area and is scarcely populated. It is a haven for nature lovers. Sitting peacefully in the lap of the Himalayas, Bhutan offers the best views of spectacular mountain peaks. Once you go on a Bhutan holiday you will realize that it has a unique culture and lifestyle. The people are warm and inviting. Bhutan holiday is the best possible get away from the busy life of the city. Also known as the “Land of the Thunder Dragons” and is also a mountaineers’ paradise, this beautiful hill country side is the home to the Bhutanese who are known for their hospitality and delicious cuisine.

LTC Tour Europe can spot the Himalayas and visit breathtakingly gorgeous monasteries. Another way to enjoy your Bhutan holiday is by visiting the cities of Thimphu, Gangtey and Paro. Each is known for their mountain valley, nunneries and natural beauty. All in all, Bhutan is an environmentalist dream. When you travel to Bhutan ensure you see all the sights and beautiful temples in the area. Thimbu is the capital of Bhutan and is the largest city of Bhutan. The culture is reflected in their national dress, literature religion and customs. They are known for their mask dances usually performed at the Tsechu festival. The festival is usually in autumn. The official residence of the King of Bhutan is in Thimpu along with the national Assembly. On your Bhutan tour makes sure you get to visit these monumental buildings and places.

Sony Ericsson E10i Mobile Phone For Europe’s Best Awards

Following the previous “2010 International Red Dot Design Award”, the Sony Ericsson XPERIA E10i (the European model: XPERIA X10 Mini) in 2010-2011 and recently received the European Award for the best cell phone , Sony Ericsson XPERIA proof E10i design and popular wisdom.

More than 50 professionals from all over Europe took part in the selection magazine editor activities, through the European Imaging and Sound Association (EISA) the functions of the phone features a unique compact design, performance and so on with the comprehensive assessment, they will eventually be Sony Ericsson XPERIA E10i as this “European Award for best mobile phone.”
The European Imaging and Sound Association (EISA) awards jury in his speech that: “XPERIA E10i is a sophisticated smart fashion phone, it through a full range of features to provide consumers with superior performance, such as GPS navigation, WLAN wireless broadband Internet access, 3G applications as well as with the 500 million pixel camera flash functions. the phone using Android platform, the only 2.6-inch screen features to achieve advantages in no way inferior to large display cell phone . XPERIA E10i is not only light weight and compact body, and has a variety of colorful chassis color, female users to promote the best choice for smart phones. ”

Sony Ericsson’s global product marketing manager Timo Maassmann said: “We are very pleased Sony Ericsson smart phone’s user experience has won wide recognition, I believe that in the near future, the relationship between the user and the phone will be changing dramatically. Users no longer mobile phones as mere communication tools, but more will use the phone as a personalized communication and entertainment experience, mobile phone market, therefore, is increased significantly.
In addition to the Sony Ericsson XPERIA E10i won the European Award for the best cell phone, there are many products will also get awards, they are: Samsung Galaxy S won the European Award for the best smart phones ( China cell phone wholesale ); Samsung Wave won the best social Europe multimedia phones; Apple iPad was the best flat products in Europe.

Employment Background Check in North Carolina on the Internet

If you’re worried about your personal safety as well as those of your loved ones, nothing is more reassuring than obtaining a person’s background report. In fact, this is the most excellent way to ascertain that a person is safe or not. You have many ways to make queries about people’s history data just like North Carolina Records, vital statistics, sexual offense list and many other public data. Traditional (manual) and electronic (Internet) means are available for you whichever is much advantageous.

First-rate internet-based record providers can give you prompt and comprehensive files when you utilize them. Also, if you have your own PC and Internet, you can visit these sites anytime you want and anywhere you are. There are many lookup sites these days which can offer you one-stop access to enormous amount of files.

To request for a criminal background check, there are three ways that you can use. In getting a one-time file, the North Carolina Court System provided three procedures and they are: contacting the Clerk of the Superior Court’s Office and requesting for a record check for a single county, contacting the NC Bureau of Investigation for your own record check but this requires a fingerprint scan or lastly by contacting a third party vendor that can provide documents at a price.

There are also three methods to obtain criminal records on an on-going basis. The first two routes can be utilized by any person while the third option may only be used when authorized by statute. So the first method is by getting it straight from the NC Administrative Office of the Courts. You would have to call the Office at 919-890-2220 or email at so you can gain access to the Remote Public Access Program. The second one is via a third party vendor; and lastly from the State Bureau of Investigation which is typically used for checks on -employees-.

When you are a busy person who doesn’t have time following many procedures in accessing a file or if you are in need of a certain file then and there, the best option for you is through the Web. The internet has already become the fastest information source because it can be done with just a few clicks and types. Furthermore, through a cyber platform you just need to submit some details e.g. names and state so that your search can be processed. In fact, it offers local and national Free Criminal Records, sexual offender files, court filings, and so forth.

So, if you’re unsure whether a person is harmless or not, regardless of his or her seemingly nice appearance or personality, you have to make a move and make a background search through a reliable online lookup route. Your security and protection are very important so, why not spend a few minutes verifying whether your uneasy feelings are real or not?

Related Articles – North Carolina Criminal Records, Criminal Records, Free Criminal Records,

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Can Pre Employment Medicals Save Australian Companies Money

It is no secret that health care costs are increasing year after year. For most companies, pre employment medicals as well as pre employment assessments are a way of decreasing those costs. But where can companies find reliable and affordable solutions when they need employment medical assessments? The answer is Medibank Health Solutions.

For more than 35 years, Medibank Health Solutions has been offering innovative and cost-effective health care services to both business entities and government. They have worked with over 4,000 businesses and various Australian government agencies in their quest to control their medical expenses through pre employment medicals and pre employment testing.

Their goal is to help people maintain their health so they can enjoy life more fully. The company has a team of more than 1.500 medical and health professionals. These highly skilled professionals provide over 3 million interactions a year on medical issues. Their services can be accessed in Australia and New Zealand by telephone as well as online. They also have a network of clinics nationwide in Australia. As such they are well suited to handle pre employment assessments.

Medibank Health Solutions offers a variety of services. These include telephone and web-based health care, travel health for business and the public, and visa medical assessments on behalf of the Department of Immigration and Citizenship.

They also deliver a wide range of health care solutions on behalf of government. These include telephone health advice that is available 24/7; in and out-bound telephone health coaching and counseling and services to support patient self-management of chronic illness. They also offer web-based preventative health and behavioural change programs.

In addition to their medical pre employment services, they also offer high-volume health assessments. These come from their wholly-owned and operated clinics in each Australian state and territory.

A major aspect of their services, including pre employment testing, is geared toward better health care for business. As businesses try to control medical costs, one of the best ways to achieve that goal is through injury prevention and health management services. Because of their employment medical experience, Medibank Health Solutions can target health problems at an early stage. They can also help educate businesses on how to reduce workplace injuries. One of their main goals is to help injured workers get back to work as soon as possible in a safe and timely manner.

Because of their expertise in pre employment medicals and other services, they are able to design tailor-made pre employment screenings and pre employment assessments that respect privacy, workplace relations and anti-discrimination legislation. Medical pre employment information is shared with employers in order to help them better assess the applicant.

In order to be truly effective, pre employment medicals must be specific to individual organisations and individual job tasks. By doing so, they focus on those specific requirements that are directly relevant to the applicant’s ability to perform the requirements of the position. Medibank Health Solutions offers a variety of pre employment screening and pre employment assessment services which include:

Job and task analysis.
Pre employment medical assessment.
Pre employment functional assessment.
Psychometric testing and mental health screening.
Drug and alcohol testing.
Hearing and lung function screening.
Baseline and periodic health screening.

For those in need of pre employment testing services, Medibank Health Solutions may be the answer.

Graphic Design Work Intended For Felons – Start When It Comes To Graphics Design

Graphic design is a superb vocation option for ex-felons. Careers pertaining to felons are usually not on top of that easy to find in these days with the current monetary slump although jobs are normally designed for gifted graphic designers. Graphic conception jobs for felons absolutely are a best spending prison helpful job.

Graphic design is usually a career which will melds all of the innovative design approach and know-how. Designers use coloured, enticed, photographed or maybe computer-generated images as well as word to develop a meaning. Some people layout the actual graphics of cards, marketing, magazine advertising campaign, record handles, T-shirt models, wrapping, web sites plus much more.

If you are attempting obtaining a task, aesthetic perception may be a sensible choice for you personally. For instance, is’nt a very customised regulated discipline. Moreover, needs . reasons why you are a good solid felon who wishes to utilize a career in aesthetic construction is the large number of tasks regarding felons available as well as the potential for self-employment. Lots of graphic designers services freelance since they have fun with the flexibility in addition to versatility for being their own personal chief.

Graphic Design Jobs pertaining to Felons

What types of graphic design work for the purpose of felons are obtainable?

Determine select free lance aesthetic invention employment designed for felons or possibly are employed by only one corporation and also firm. The two wasp nest work compensate nicely nonetheless the standard positions offer way more employment whilst freelance are available provides more liberty and flexibility.

A lot of companies do not require graphical urbanisme work carried out regularly so they really will not have a graphic designer with their pay-roll. As soon as they undertake ought anything at all designed for instance a company logo, poster, banner, paper advertisement along with other like work, they may need to go for a freelance graphic artist towards the explicit project.
Advertising campaigns by way of Search engines

An independent graphic artist has many purchasers which employ your ex to your workplace relating to a variety of style undertakings. With a lot more plus more companies going online to search for skilled modlistes, independent visual ouvrage work regarding felons are readily available. You may also do business from home that is definitely a particularly great way for people who have problems or even people who prefer to spend more time with their families.

Never assume all graphic designers function self-employed. Lots of decide to job normal work as designers for advertising specialists, mags, papers, advertising companies, cinma and cartoon local, dvd and blu-ray layout vendors, and so forth ..

Graphic Architecture Work opportunities pertaining to Felons: Ways to Be successful

To reach a fabulous image architectures work you’ve got to be an imaginative, artistic individual who could certainly change ideas towards image develop. These days almost all design work is subside concerning pcs. Image success computer software doesnt?it remain the same through year upon year so that you need to be comfy with needing to figure out how to assist adjusting systems and computer software.

Being a design man or woman you may be using the services of many different consumers and that means you ought beneficial conversation abilties. Clients may also criticize your hard work and possibly request you to help to make plenty of adjustments prior to a real project is finished. Which means that personality-wise you ought to be dcontract as well as lenient with critique.

Occupations pertaining to Felons: The right way to Achieve Your Primary Goal

It isn’t mandatory to have a formal graphic degree inside paintings or even layout. Quite a few small enterprises definitely will use manufacturers determined by past ordeal along with know-how for everything software packages these people intend to work with.

Then again, numerous consumers along with massive businesses are unwilling to choose people with not any certificate, degree during video conception or even it has the linked areas. That’s why it is just a good idea to buy obtaining professional survtement as a good image architect.

Electrical power different kinds of training systems you can bring. Universities might sometimes suggest very similar packages that will audio exactly the same but possess a numerous target. Such as, company multi-media lessons could emphasise -coup methods although yet another guide can more about paper business.

Quick education or qualification opportunities are good but if you graduate you should on the lookout for your first position, you will likely have to get started on from your base together with work your way increase the occupation corporate. A fabulous four-year bachelor? education is more expensive but additionally more impressive and can help you to start off are employed at this higher-paying work designed for felons.

Graphic creation jobs regarding felons are an ideal option for those that like to help personal computers and are generally artistically proficient. Though it may be possible to educate by yourself graphic design, you will probably have to have a level when it comes to graphic design are generally work for felons. You can either function free lance or find regular graphic design careers intended for felons. An important feature about graphic design employment for felons is that they compensate nicely and there are lots of job opportunities pertaining to felons ready.

Employment Discrimination In Tough Economic Times

In today’s tough economy, there is a fear that employment discrimination will increase along with the unemployment rate. The EEOC reports that the number of age discrimination claims increased 29 percent from 2007-2008, higher than the 15 percent rise in discrimination charges overall. The AARP suggests that this disparity is connected to mass layoffs where older employees feel unfairly targeted because of their age.

For those looking for new jobs, the landscape can be just as frustrating. Normally responsible employers, overwhelmed by large numbers of applications, may be tempted to narrow the list using biased methods. Or, they may simply become ( mistakenly ) concerned about the cost of investing in new hires and resort to stereo-typing in an attempt to limit assumed risk, however mistaken, imprudent, or illegal.

The good news is that by being aware of employment laws that safeguard American workers, job seekers can take deliberate action to protect themselves and demand unbiased hiring practices. “Under the laws enforced by EEOC, it is illegal to discriminate against someone (applicant or employee) because of that person’s race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information.” -“Prohibited Employment Policies/Practices”, U.S. EOCC. Businesses can avoid accusations of discrimination by training hiring managers appropriate interview techniques. Below are some of the guidelines that employers and applicants should remain aware of during the job seeking process:

Advertising, Recruitment, Application & Hiring

It is against the law for an employer to publish advertisements or recruit potential employees in a way that shows preference for (or discourages) someone because of their race, religion, sex, etc. Using words such as “seeking women” or “recent college graduates” may prevent men and people over 40 from applying, for example. Recruiting only within a specific race community may also violate the law. A word-of-mouth campaign that results almost entirely in hiring within that ethnic community (for example) would be frowned upon . An employer may not refuse to give applications to anyone because of their race, religion, sex, etc. An applicant may demand they be allowed to apply for a job that fits their qualifications, despite preferential language in a (probably illegal) job listing.

Pre-Employment Inquiries

As a general rule, facts requested by an employer during the hiring process should stick to that which is essential for determining if a person is qualified for the job. The use of personal information such as an applicant’s race, sex, age, religion, etc. to discriminate is prohibited, so it is best for the employer not to ask, even if the law does not clearly forbid it. Employers are specifically prohibited from asking about disability. An applicant , generally, should not feel pressured to answer questions about their:

* Race * Age * Height & weight * Credit rating * Religious affiliation * Citizenship * Marital status and/or number of children * Gender * Arrest & conviction history * Disability * Medical history

Exceptions exist when an employer can show that the data is related to the actual job demands. An employer hiring for a highly physical job, dock loading for example, may legitimately ask questions about height, weight, or physical ability to perform the labor .

Businesses need to train hiring managers to avoid possibly misunderstood (if admittedly friendly) questions. Asking “How old are your children?”, for example, could create the perception of bias against applicants with children if that applicant is not hired. Questions about when collecting personal information is OK can be answered at the EEOC website in more detail. Some areas, such as citizenship and arrest & conviction history, can require subtle interpretation, so businesses may wish to consult with a qualified employment law attorney when developing hiring procedures.

If an applicant feels like they have been discriminated against, the first step, according to monster.com’s career advice columns, is to contact the employment offices . and ask for feedback on the interview. A well-trained HR person should be happy to talk openly about the hiring process. In some cases, the HR contact could look into the situation and grant another interview. If unhappy with the employment office’s response, an applicant may wish to take their complaint to the EEOC or, even further to an employment law attorney . A qualified discrimination attorney can petition the court to mandate that the employer hire you, give you back pay, and award punitive damages.

When it’s already hard to find work, discrimination should not add another barrier to landing that perfect job. By understanding employment rights, everyone can insist that employers hire based on their ability to do the work.

Top Three Destinations For Walking Holidays In Europe

If you are a looking for solo holidays abroad then you will inevitably be met with a whole host of different holiday types and destinations. One of the most popular types of vacations to go on is walking holidays in Europe. They provide a laid back and cost effective way of having fun and seeing the beautiful sights the country you are visiting has to offer. In order to give you a bit of help when it comes to deciding whereabouts to go for your journey, this article reveals the top three destinations for walking holidays in Europe.

Italy

Italy is an absolutely beautiful country with tons of stunning scenery and sights to offer. It is the perfect walking holiday if you want the option to participate in something a lot more relaxed then extreme trekking. Italy literally contains the full package; you have the spectacular and drastic vision of the mountains, however on the other hand you also have the idyllic and gorgeous crystal waters of Lake Garda, theres literally nothing more magical then exploring the different sandy coves. The climate is also lovely; warm but not too hot, thus after enjoying a leisurely stroll, why not stop in a beautiful garden for a glass of delicious wine.

France

If you are looking for something a lot more challenging that will get your adrenaline pumping then why not book a walking holiday at Mont Blanc. If you are considering this, then it is highly advisable that you spend a few days perfecting your techniques of walking in the snow and ice. You can do this whilst at Mont Blanc, as there are many facilities to ensure you get in the preparation you require. Climbing the Mont Blanc Ascent is a difficult challenge and thus it is perfect if you are someone who likes to test themselves, nevertheless it is something which is highly rewarding and memorable – youll be telling your grandkids about this adventure, thats for sure!

Switzerland

Switzerland has established itself as one of the best places for walking holidays in Europe, and this is very much down to the Matterhorn Circuit. This is also a trip for those who like a challenge, and enjoy strenuous trekking. Nevertheless, just like Mont Blanc, it is certainly a rewarding challenge as there is so much to see, such as the beautiful forests and the stunning alpine meadows. It is also a trek which is filled to the brim with culture, as the mountains lie on the border of Switzerland and Italy.

Italy, France and Switzerland are just a few of the exciting walking holidays available in Europe. Nevertheless, they are certainly three of the very best, as they have so much to offer. Obviously, where you go depends on your tastes, do you want something more relaxed? Or do you want a holiday dedicated to fierce trekking? Either way, next time you are looking for a walking holiday abroad, then make sure you consider one of these options. You wont regret it!

The American Made Vacuum – Who will fill the Void

Cognitive mental processes can be overloaded by too much information. Nascent terms like, information glut, infobesity and data smog are ugly byproducts of the information age, but as it pertains to prophecy and future events this can rarely happen.

All legitimate prophecy is found in the Bible and since that book has not changed in centuries only speculation about it has any chance of creating overload. And yet, only a cursory view of today’s prophecy writers and speakers show clearly that we are approaching critical mass.

Some of the teachings and a lot of the speculation is falling off the deep end and we need to be ever so careful not to mislead others. We will be asked to answer up, if we mislead.

Headlines this week included the story of one man’s reaction to Victoria Osteen’s recent public declaration that we do everything not for God’s glory, but for our own happiness and that is what God wants. His reaction to Victoria’s statement was to enter the church’s bookstore and throw down the books and other merchandise to the floor until he was removed by security personnel.

Some are calling Osteen’s remarks -blasphemous,’ but considering the source at the least it is consistent with the general message coming from that ministry. The idea of our happiness trumping a life lived to bring glory to God is part and parcel to today’s great apostasy and the trend of humanizing the divine word of the Living God. It is the great diversion being added to the great apostasy – that too has been prophesied. (2Tim 3:1-2)

Then along comes an internet ad for a -Nephilim’ mounds convention, where trips are being offered to view the mounds of the alleged -giants’ of the ancient world which some hold were in fact – angels or the offspring of angels.

In this era of Obama shock, emerging ISIS radicals and worldwide confusion among nations apparently some think the answer to all this horror and confusion is to go look at the bones of ancient angels. This is overload and absurdity rolled into one.

This is your world today!

Speculation is not wrong until it becomes a preponderance of diversionary side stepping

Whether any of these theories and speculations holds any significant truth is not the question. The only question is what bearing does this alleged truth have on prophecy or the gospel message in total? Is it supplemental or substitutionary?

In fact, if it takes over the time and thinking of those espousing it and those preoccupied with it, it has become diversion and possibly an actual preoccupation with error. It may be intriguing, interesting and exciting which does little to disprove that many of these speculations are floating in the zone between extraneous and erroneous.

The Old Stuff vs The New – Error and Diversion with a Modern Face

You would think that after centuries of uncovering errors and spurious inclusions of extra biblical materials into the church’s message (The proclamation of the gospel) that we would quickly shun any new attempts to water down, twist or appendage the simple, but pure message of the gospel

The church has managed to identify many errors such as the Jehovah Witnesses New World Translation of the bible, the Book of Mormon, Mary Baker Eddy’s Science and Health, Theosophy, Golden Dawn, prosperity gospel extremes and a plethora of other hapless attempts to discolor, supplant and divert the biblical message. It would seem we would easily catch the latest additions to the bible message that are garnering all too much attention. Here’s the short list.

The Nephilim The Blood Moon Tetrads Muslim antichrist (caliphates) Shroud speculations Ufology Ark searches The Holy Grail

Chasing these things around may or may not be diversions depending on how much time and energy is given to them, but two things are abundantly clear, they are not the fulfillment of the great commission and they have nothing to do with the fulfillment of last days’ prophecy.

-Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. (Mt 28: 19-20)

Watchers may speculate, but few speculators are legitimate watchers

The seriousness of second coming doctrine or what is sometimes called eschatology is not to be trifled with. The destiny and eternal fate of millions of precious human lives hang in the balance. Using second coming doctrine to produce sensationalism, sell books, call together special tours and any other purpose other than helping a generation prepare for the second advent is farcical, foolish and super feckless.

The terms watch, watchful and watcher appear over one hundred times in scripture, about half in the New Testament. Those who take the business of watching seriously may speculate about things as they unfold, but they do it with a sense of responsibility and gravity that reflects a true calling, rather than a vested interest or an idle curiosity – lives depend on it!

One of the best rules for sound exegesis and interpretation of scripture is the rule that says – if the scripture makes plain sense – seek no other sense. It is because of this rule that there are two things this writer and watcher will never do.

The first: is to switch explanations of scripture to fit the current speculation of the day. The second: is to avoid all fiction. The Left Behind series was titillating, but I will never quote from or refer to them at all. I have rejected reading or reviewing all novels and other works of fiction in any media about second coming – for the most obvious reasons – with speculation running rampant and responsibility running at a peak – adding yet more confusion to this complex subject is dilettante, desultory and haphazard.

Distractions that need serious review starting with – the Muslim antichrist

The rise of the Muslim Caliphate as the fulfillment of antichrist is pure speculation. The view that antichrist comes from the newly forming EU is the only view fully supported by scripture. Here are some obvious reasons why.

Antichrist is not connected to any religion and seeks only those who will worship him. (2Th 2: 4) (Dan 11: 38)

To implement and enforce the -mark of the beast’ an economic system with mandatory inclusion throughout the world, only a fully formed western power with advanced technology and completely mobile military capability could create and maintain this system. Muslim nations with some exceptions do not have this capacity; some of them are still living in third world conditions.

The Prophet Ezekiel shows the Muslim armies in league with what most expositors see as Russia slaughtered on the hills of Israel (Ezekiel Chapters 37-39) by the intervention of God in the last days. With a Muslim army in total disarray who would take a Muslim world leader seriously?

That a Muslim leader will emerge over Europe is a possibility since now nations like Britain and France have such large Muslim populations, but this notion has a lot of hurdles set against it. The western mind is still not ready for a religion that takes over civil governance much less one that reduces women to the estate of slaves and publicly executes its criminals, homosexuals and just about anyone who disagrees with them.

The Muslim religion is saddled with spurious origins, but it is also troubled by a faulty philosophical premise which is being used to propagate itself. Martyrdom is a means to strengthen any religion or cause because anything worth dying for is respected by most of mankind. But when the martyrs are suicides, that respect is lost and the only remaining emotional response is a cringing and loathsomeness and most of the world sees this as fanaticism not bravery and or conviction.

Only in the American psyche does the idea of Muslim triumph become the great issue. Only recently it has been reported that Hollywood has come out against ISIS and Hamas. Celebs may tune in late, but then they may have just realized that the idea of a Muslim takeover in the USA would see Hollywood as it first order of business. No more nudity, homosex and general sleaze would be allowed. Tinsel Town’s beauties would not need makeup anymore – only hijabs.

Some fear that Barack Obama is set to open the doors to the Muslim religion to overtake the nation, but even that has serious questions attached. In the six years of his administration the only solid accomplishments in policy have to do with the belligerent arm of the LGBT. This contradiction stands out like a blazing neon sign because all homosexual pursuits would be cut off under Muslim dominance of any nation.

It is impossible to underplay the dangers of the Muslim emergence throughout the world, but to see this as the fulfillment of the last day’s prophecies of the antichrist takes a bit of stretching at the very least.

The Roman Church and its Pontiff as beast and antichrist

Almost all the same reasons for rejecting the Caliphate as the source of the antichrist also hold true about the Pope and the Roman church.

The Scarlet clothed woman which rides atop the beast is all the apostate churches which would include Rome, but is not limited to the RCC.

Both the women and later the very city of Rome are completely hated, cast off and destroyed according to prophecy – what kingdom does antichrist rule if it is snuffed out – of all things by the kingdom upon which it rests and rides. (Rev 17: 1f)

Common sense is all that’s needed to see that the beast (kingdom of the antichrist) and the antichrist hate the women (Rev 17: 16) and cast her off. Antichrist is against God and all that is called God – fake or real.

With the fake church gone and the real church under heavy full scale persecution he (the antichrist) is now free to lead the world directly into the abomination of desolation and the subsequent battle of Armageddon.

The idea of the antichrist being either Pontiff or the RCC takes a leave of the senses when it is seen that the antichrist comes against and destroys the woman (whore of Rev 17: 16)

Whatever the antichrist may be – he is not dumb. Even he knows that a house divided against itself cannot stand.

But Europe is too weak – the fledgling cannot soar with the eagles

Modern speculators of biblical prophecy often fluff off Europe as a contender or a world power. They forget that prophecy is only pre-written history and it does not take great shifts in power to come about. It is willed by the Living God in its time.

-This is the word of the LORD unto Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the LORD of hosts.- (Zec 4: 6b)

All that the EU lacks is the right leader to solidify its potential economic, military and political power. He will appear at the appointed time.

To those who insist that the EU will not shift into the greatest world power in world history we have only to remind them that one world power has shifted away from its standing in only six short years.

With Barack Obama as leader for these past six, the military, foreign policy, extraction of our own natural resources and adherence to laws including our own founding documents has waned and crumbled under the banner of Barack’s campaign declaration of – -Change we can believe in.-

238 years of power and standing in the world has been undermined in less than a decade. What is so hard to believe about a nation rising in only a few years or less? Have we forgotten the rise of Hitler, Mao, Pol Pot and others – none which took more than a decade?

Further Reading:

Serious Questions and Answers on the Coming of Antichrist Hitler Was a Choir Boy Compared to the Coming Final Dictator – Who is This Man and is there any way to Identify Him The Apostasy is Underway – No One Is Ready for What Follows The Fig Tree Generation – So How Much Time is Left? U.S. and EU Strengthen Ties – Prophecy Train Tops the Grade

This writer rarely wastes time centering in on one false prophet or the other, there would be little time left for anything else. Suffice it to say, that the second coming doctrine is not open for idle speculation and general opinions to tear it to shreds. But for those who insist on doing this – comes this most serious warning..

-For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.- (Rev 22: 18-19)

As for who will fill the vacuum created by America – vacuums suck in what’s nearest to it without any help from anyone.

As America wanes will the vacuum be filled with a marauding band of raging Muslims cutting off heads in public with children and men brandishing AK’s and anti-aircraft guns mounted on pick up trucks?

Here is your bottom line – watch Europe.

Michael Bresciani is the publisher of American Prophet.org since 2005. The website features the articles and reports of Rev Bresciani along with some of America’s best writers and journalists, news and reviews that have earned the site the title of – The Website for Insight. Millions have read his timely reports and articles in online journals and print publications across the nation and the globe. Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Organizing The Best Trance Parties Uk Europe

Trance parties have been the rage since a long time and its popularity shows no signs of abating. Every corner of the world boasts of at least one hot trance party destination and trance parties UK Europe are a byword with hard core party goers. Popular trance parties UK Europe are normally organized by event management companies which know that the real success of the party actually depends upon the crowd itself. To this end, the companies take enormous pains to ensure that the trance parties UK Europe are organized on a grand level and are recognized by music lovers from across the world.
The passion which goes into such trance parties UK Europe is not to be under estimated as the goal is to ensure that trancers get the maximum enjoyment from the experience and even for first-timers, the experience would become something to be remembered forever. The state of absolute ecstasy and bliss is achieved by getting together renowned artistes from all over the world and by providing stupendous acoustics which really take the energy level to a new high. The music at trance parties UK Europe is varied and the mix of psychedelic fusion incorporating pulsating music and throbbing lights induces high spirits even in the first-timers who get totally converted.
Unconditional joy can be experienced at well-organized trance parties UK Europe and the sheer intensity and energy level of the events has to be felt to be believed. The venues at these great trance parties UK Europe are well-decorated and the visuals help in creating a magical experience. Celebrations are always magnified when people come together and trance parties UK Europe are the ideal way for trance lovers to join each other in creating a world of their own where all barriers are shattered by the transcendental music. The resultant residues are only passion, euphoria and pure joy which have no comparison to any other feelings on this earth.
In this furious fast-paced, maddening world, trance parties UK Europe are a great way to receive peace of mind and trance lovers can seek solace at such events.

Razzle Dazzle At The Best Nightlife Destinations In Europe

Put on the hottest clothes and coolest attitude as you step out for party on your European tours. Whether you can a European traveller on Schengen Visa on a simpleton on the international holiday packages from Mumbai, there are some sparkling cities of night in Europe where you can party till the wee hours and live to tell the astonishing tale.

Ibiza; Spain:

It is not just the hottest and latest trend in the world of the travel; it has the coolest clubs and parties too. When your plan your European tours, Ibiza is not the popular city on all the Europe holiday packages. But, it has the perfect spirit for the parties, ecstatic events, dynamic open air spicy fun evenings, and greatly curated club sensations. If you are a party animal or someone who does want to try something new and awesome, this is the place to be. Your European tour will have a new meaning as you immerse in the local couture per se.

London; UK:

Even the most traditional Europe holiday packages include holidays in London. So, almost everyone can catch the free evening to discover the thrill of London nightlife. Some or the other sick club in London becomes flavour of the week. The nightlife in London is that fast and evolving that you will love to visit some of the parties to take the edge off. From the inner circle special clubs, VIP passes to restaurant launches, everything is up for grabs. Enjoy. But, dont you think for a second that it is all the city offers. Holidays in London are known for their rich diversity and so is the nightlife. Whatever kind of entertainment charms you from the events, gourmet dining, to some alternative bohemian pubs, London is your city.

Berlin; German:

If you are a tourist on an international holiday from Mumbai in India or Fuan in China, you may not perceive Berlin as the finest destination in European tours. After all, this ancient yet modern city is not famous for many things. But, it does have the most awesome nightlife. From cute little cafes in the town to the really exclusive parties, Berlin nightlife scene is fun, diverse and unforgettable. From a former industry port to gourmet international cuisine with a sip of cocktail, the myriad of indulgences available each night is so overwhelming.

You can expect almost all the metropolises to have some form of exciting nightlife. From Zurich to Paris, there are several destinations in European travel packages that will bring in some personal downtime with a touch of refreshing local flavour. So, feel free to indulgence. Whats your poison?

Top 5 Mesmerizing Ways To Explore Europe

Europe; a Mecca for international tours,is a gorgeous continent with multiple sightseeing attractions and entertainment options. Yet, I bet, you can never see enough of it. The lush greenery, snow clad mountains and mega-dazzling cities Europe is a stunner. You see it, experience it and love it. Thats the way it goes. You can never experience the heart of this historic yet modern, artistic yet tech-savvy continent without falling in love with it.

Take a Europe train

Euro rail and bunch of other trains connect Europe. Though, it is not surprising, it is the best way to see Europe. Take a train to Spain, France, Italy and Switzerland to see the gorgeous countryside. The glamorous cities of Europe are inter-connected so that you can see the best of Europe holiday in quickest way. Whether you hop on next inter-city or plan Europe holiday with luxury travel, train to Spain, Portugal, Italy, Turkey, France and Switzerland is the best way to go.

Spoil yourself on Europe beaches

Europe has some of the most breathtaking beaches. Seems clich, I know. Yet, the fresh and scenic beaches in and around Europe have the perfect holiday experience. Rabbit beach in Islands of Sicily has the golden sand and the most exotic combination of fishes for snorkeling. Rhossili Bay in UK, Playa de las Catedrales in Spain and Cala Mariolu in Italy are exceptional. Witness the miracle of nature as these pristine beaches blow your mind away with their simplicity and beauty.

Enrich with art tour of Europe

As a historic continent, it has vast collections of art. From the Byzantine period to Renaissance era, Europe has the most amazing art to explore. It lies in the Prague architecture, it lies in museums of France and it lies in the churches and basilicas of Vatican. Europe is an art lovers dream destination. It is truly fulfilling international tour for wanderer too. Witness the footprint of historic geniuses as they made the most magnificent creations humanly possible.

When you visit Europe, you dont need to visit a landmark, village or art gallery to see the culture of thousands of years. You can see it in the beer garden of Germany. You can see it in the opera house of Vienna. You can catch a glimpse of it from a caf in France or a hotel in Rome. It is the ever-present phenomenon in food, dance, people and the lifestyle. So, dont forget to get the memories of the local culture too.

World Divorce Rates And Trends

Divorce is rising all around the world. There are, however, some places where it is still fairly rare. Generally divorce has become more acceptable but there are trends as to which countries it is more common in. Some geographical areas seem to have higher divorce rates than others while different lifestyles seem to have their impact as well.

India and Sri Lanka are the two countries that have the lowest divorce rates, around one and one and a half per cent respectively. In this part of Asia divorce is still very rare, although it is more common in South East Asia. In India, for example, arranged marriage is still fairly prominent although not as common as it once was. Divorce is not deemed as acceptable as it is in other cultures and therefore many either make a concerted effort to work through relationship problem or remain in unhappy marriages. This is much less common in parts of Europe and North America. There are two ways of looking at this. It might be considered a positive that people do not get divorced as soon as any problems occur in a marriage, something that is considered by many to be a negative of the American family law system, where it can be very easy to obtain a divorce should you wish to. However it could also be considered a negative if people remain in unhappy marriages just because they feel that it is wrong to divorce.

No European countries have anywhere near the same low divorce rates. The lowest divorce rates in Europe are Macedonia and Bosnia with five per cent, nearly five times more than India. Much of the rest of Europe have much higher rates than this. There is a similar trend in North America. Sweden and the United States have the highest divorce rates, both with nearly fifty-five per cent of marriages ending this way. Northern Europe, especially Scandinavia, have particularly high rates. As mentioned above Sweden has the worlds highest, with Finland, Denmark and Norway all at over forty per cent. Other European countries such a Luxembourg, Belgium, Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany and France also have a high rate of divorce.

Although many of the statistics in Europe are high the Mediterranean countries do not follow this trend, with Italy, Spain and Greece having less divorces than most of the continent. This could be due to their lifestyles. Much of their culture revolves around the family, with large families often spending a large amount of time together. Due the importance put of family values, divorce may not seem as much of an option to those in these countries.

Andrew Marshall

Employment Attorney Role In Cases

An employment attorney is a lawyer who practices labor law and helps employees and even employers who might have issues in this aspect. This is a highly specialized part of the law and those who practice in it need to be well versed in it and be aware of the rules and regulations that the government may have regarding this. Lawyers who practice in this field also need to be familiar with the terms of contract between employers and employees.

Role and Responsibilities
The role and responsibilities of the employment attorney is to initially listen to the situation of the person who is consulting him or her. In doing so, the lawyer will be able to make an assessment regarding the validity and feasibility of the case. The knowledge of the legal representative in this field will be able to help him or her in the assessment of the validity of the case. When an agreement is reached between the lawyer and the client regarding the scope of the case, the lawyer will then request documentation or proof regarding the case. Usually, the contract between the employer and employee is one of the things that might be a good basis of whether laws have been broken or not. Any violation of the state laws, which are intact to protect both the employers and employees, will be brought to fore and scrutinized if it can stand in court. In this regard, the contract usually needs to be precise and be able to clearly state what the duties and job of the employee is as well as the obligations and duties of the employer to the employee. Wages need to be stated in the contract so with the working times and conditions. The employment attorney should also be able to look for potential evidence to support the claims of his or he client. Evidence can be in any form as long as it in violation of the contract between the employer and employee as well as in violation of the state laws.

The lawyer should also be able to represent his or her client in negotiations between both parties as well as in court when the need should arise. The legal representative will also counsel his or her client regarding what is in the best interest of the client. Most of the cases, which involve a single employee against the employer end up in a settlement. The employment attorney can counsel the client whether the settlement is a sound offer or not. Another thing that the lawyer needs to be aware of in this field is collective labor law. Unions or cooperatives are often the representatives of the employees when there is a discrepancy in their workplace. Strikes and pickets are often the result of the union being disappointed in the stance of the management.

These are some of the responsibilities of the lawyer who will represent his or her client in a labor case. The lawyer needs to establish a good relationship with the client.

Ead For Dependents Of Work Visa Holders On H-4, O-3, P-4, Td, R-2 Visas

I feel helpless. Back home I was working with a fashion house as their primary designer. Here I have nothing to do but sit at home. Not like my friend Suzanne, who got her employment authorization and now works for a consulting company.” says Olivia with sadness in her voice.

Both Olivia and Suzanne are good friends from France, have the same academic background, live in the same city in California and their husbands work in the same company as Business Analysts. While Suzanne can work in the US, Olivia is not authorized to do so. Why? Olivia is on H-4 status and Suzanne is on L-2.

Dependants of personnel with work visas in the US are not generally allowed to work in the US, unless they qualify for a work visa in their own. However, spouses of certain student or work visa holders can apply for employment authorization. This article discusses the situations when a dependant spouse can work or study in the United States.

Dependants of H nonimmigrants (H-4 visa)

In the above example, Olivia cannot work in the US because she is on H-4 visa. Dependants on H-4 visas must be supported by the principal H visa holder. However it is possible to study on H-4 without converting to a student visa.

Dependants of L-1 nonimmigrants (L-2 visa)

Suzanne can work in the US because she is on L-2 status. As a spouse of L-1 visa holder you may work part-time or full-time in the U.S. You must apply for and receive proper employment authorization from the USCIS before you can start working. You may also engage in full-time study in the U.S. However, you may not apply for employment authorization if you are a dependant child on L-2 visa.

Dependants of E-1 or E-2 nonimmigrants

Dependant spouses of E-1 and E-2 visa holders may seek employment by applying for Employment Authorization using Form I-765. You may also attend U.S. schools, colleges and universities, and do not have to apply for separate student visa such as an F-1 visa.

Dependants of J-1 nonimmigrants (J-2 visa)

You may work in the U.S. on J-2 visa, if you receive special permission from the USCIS and the money is not needed to support the principal J-1 visa holder. However, an application for permission to work can only be made after the J-2 visa holder’s arrival in the U.S. and will be considered in light of policies then in effect.

To apply for work authorization on J-2 visa, you:

Must hold valid J-2 status, and the Exchange Visitor must hold valid J-1 status, as shown on your Form I-94 Departure Record cards

May not use your income to support your J-1 spouse or parent

May begin working only after you receive your Employment Authorization document from the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)

May work part-time or full-time, at any job, for any employer. There is no limit to the amount you may earn

You may also study on J-2 visa. There is no requirement that the spouse and/or children of a J-1 visa holder apply for a student visa if they wish to study in the U.S.

Dependants of F-1 nonimmigrants (F-2 visa)

You may not take up paid employment while in the U.S. on F-2 visa. As an F-2 spouse you may not engage in full time study and F-2 child may only engage in full time elementary or secondary school (kindergarten through twelfth grade) study. F-2 spouse or child may engage in a study that is vocational or recreational in nature.

Conclusion

Though immigration regulations allow certain spouses in dependant visa status to apply for employment authorization, for some, working in US is a distant dream. However, there are situations where persons in a situation similar to Olivia are able to work. They can change their status to a work visa, provided they have the required qualifications, experience in their field of expertise and a valid job offer from a US employer. One other situation where a dependent spouse can start working in the US can be when the principal spouse’s employer files for permanent residence for that spouse, and subsequently the dependant spouse may become eligible to apply for Employment Authorization. However, for persons not eligible for any of these alternatives, working in the US still remains a distant dream.

A few weeks later Olivia receives a call Hi Olivia, this is Rose from VisaPro. Your H-1B petition has been approved. Congratulations! You can soon start working. Feel free to Contact VisaPro in case you need further help.

Contact VisaPro if you have any questions regarding any type of employment based and family based petitions.

VisaPro covers the latest happenings on work visas in Immigration Monitor, monthly newsletter. Click here to subscribe to Immigration Monitor.

Pci-dss Compliance For Internet Payment Service Providers Imminent Across Europe

It is no secret that today customers are more concerned than ever about the security of their information when paying online so ecommerce merchants need to do all they can to protect their customers credit card data. Using a PCI-DSS compliant payment provider is an extra security measure that can give peace of mind to merchants and to their clients.

Since June 2008 in the United States all internet payment service providers (IPSPs) have been required to become PCI- DSS compliant. As data security, credit card fraud and identity theft are hot topics around the globe, it is without a doubt that Europes compliance standards will closely follow suite. In the very near future all European payment gateways will have to become PCI DSS certified, therefore merchants who currently accept credit cards online or are looking for a payment provider should make sure that their provider is PCI-DSS certified (LEVEL 1).

PCI security standards were developed by the major credit card companies to provide the most comprehensive single framework to address all security, data integrity and privacy concerns associated with processing payments online. Consequently all IPSPs in the United States had to become PCI compliant in order to follow Visa and MasterCards new regulations. I

Carl Buchalet, CEO of Cashtronics online payment system explains Our clients do not have to worry about the safety of their merchant accounts as they have the protection of our level 1 PCI-DSS certification which is the highest level of security in the industry. PCI DSS Level 1 is without exception the only acceptable authorisation standard for online payment gateway providers to operate legally with maximum security.

Asking an internet payment service provider the following questions could save a company from potentially serious problems:

1) Are they PSP PCI-DSS 1 certified? (Be sure to ask for the documentation for verification)
2) Does each individual merchant receive a merchant account?
3) Does the merchant sign a contract directly with the bank?
4) What will the descriptor say on the clients credit card statement? (Will it be the company or the ISPS name- in which case they may be illegally aggregating merchants)
5) Who is wiring the funds, the IPSP or the bank? (Whoever is handling the funds must be in good financial health)

Merchants must be very thorough when researching for their potential internet payment provider in order to avoid the serious consequences that can arise from working with non PCI Certified payment providers. This compliance will soon be mandatory across Europe so merchants must verify that their payment provider already is PCI compliant or is planning on becoming so.

An Employment Attorney Can Advise You

If you have legal issues concerning your company’s workers, you need an employment attorney to advise you. Getting solid advice can protect your company and give you peace of mind. Legal representatives can also help you understand government regulations, prepare documents, and give educational trainings to your staff members.

Advice

There are times when a business owner comes up against confusing legal scenarios. You may have workers claiming sexual harassment. There may be a problematic employee who is causing trouble with the others. Maybe there is a misunderstanding about terms of an employment agreement or benefits. Sometimes immigration issues come up that make you scratch your head. It’s very helpful to have the advice of an employment attorney so that you can resolve disputes and avoid making legal errors you weren’t aware of.

Government Regulations

Obtaining explanation from savvy legal guides about state and federal regulations is very helpful. You need to understand the ins and outs of EEO and ADA regulations to remain compliant, not to mention the Fair Labor Standards Act, minimum wage laws, unemployment benefits, what constitutes harassment, OSHA laws, and more. While it’s your company, in order to be a business owner in the United States, you have to comply with all government regulations.

Preparing Documents

Every document, contract, and staff handbook that you create and hand out to your workers should be legally appropriate. In order to devise ironclad agreements and to protect yourself with language, you need an employment attorney at your side, reviewing your contracts, documents, and handbooks.

Educational Trainings

If you provide educational trainings to your staff members on issues such as sexual harassment, you are less likely to be hit with a lawsuit. Many times, these claims are made simply because employees didn’t understand that they were, in fact, sexually harassing someone. Sometimes, workers get a bit too friendly and what is meant as a joke is taken as harassment. For example, off-color jokes, emails, or suggestive conversations can be offensive and considered sexual harassment. There are other ways that this claim can be made as well, including inappropriate touching, requiring dates or physical contact in exchange for promotions or whatnot. If your workers understand upfront what’s acceptable and what is not, a problem is less likely to occur. When issues do come up, an employment attorney can provide backup.

In order to legally protect your company, you need the sage advice of an employment attorney. This professional can not only give you advice, he or she can also help you understand government regulations, prepare documents within legal guidelines, and train your employees so lawsuits don’t occur.

Variety of things Indian food store contains located in Europe

Indian food store contains variety of food items whether it ranges from basic ingredient like salt or food material which is rarely available. Food stores now contain each and every item for making any kind of recipes which saves time of people. So it’s very good especially for gourmets and also for people who are working and remain busy all the time to find all grocery items under one roof as no matter how many things we memorize or how many grocery items list we prepare , one thing or the other surely remains left out.

Other best aspect of food stores is that it contains all the grocery items which are of good quality you may get charged extra for some items but then you do not need to compromise with quality. As spending few more pennies to get items of best quality is for worth. Specifically items like mouka na capt and basmati re getting from a good food store is worth as small shop vendors easily trick for money and give you bad quality grocery items.

People who suffer from celiac disease and have wheat intolerance can also buy bezlepkov dieta from these Indian food stores. Gluten is rich in protein and is mainly found in cereals like barley and wheat. Other items that can be bought from food stores are tapioka perly mostly used for preparing south Indian dishes and from tapioca pearls crunchy crackers can also be prepared. henna tetovn pasta is also available in food store especially for ladies and girls who love to apply henna on their palm and feet on several different occasions.

The Woven History Of Tapestry

A tapestry is a handwoven textile. It is usually made with heavy threads of several colors. Most tapestries are hung on walls or suspended from ceilings.

The weaving of textile by hand requires much time and a great deal of skill. The weaver is limited by problems that other artists seldom face. He has no canvas to paint, no clay to model, no wood or stone to carve. Given only colored threads, he must manufacture and decorate his textile at the same time. Artists with patience, ability to plan, and skill to weave have always been rare, and tapestries traditionally are very expensive and precious.

In the days when the church and great royal houses ruled the world, tapestries were symbols of wealth. Whenever plays, official ceremonies, or public celebrations were held, tapestries lent beauty and richness to the events. Bishops and kings welcomed important visitors with red carpets flanked by tapestry displays. Religious processions followed routes marked with tapestries.

In the ancient tombs of Egypt pictures have been found that show weavers making tapestries of linen. Only a few fragments of Egyptian tapestries survive, but the pictures indicate that the art of tapestry weaving is about 5.000 years old.

The Hebrews learned to make tapestries while they were living in either Babylon or Egypt. The Bible mentions this art several times, and other ancient writings refer to tapestry weaving among the people of Syria, Phoenicia, Persia, and India. Famous throughout the ancient Mediterranean world were the textiles that decorated the cities of Tyre and Sidon. These fabrics impressed the Greeks and Romans, who dominated the Mediterranean lands between 500 B.C. and A.D. 500.

During the medieval period Islamic warriors swept across the Middle East. These people developed a unique style of art. Because the Islamic religion was opposed to the reproduction of figures, tapestries were made with forms called arabesques, which are bated on Arabic script, geometry, and abstract floral patterns.

Knights of the Crusades returning to Europe brought back an appreciation for many Eastern things. Among these newfound tastes was a delight in tapestries. Although the returning Crusaders spread a desire for tapestries throughout Europe, an actual knowledge of the craft probably came from the Moors, Islamic people living in Spain. There are legends about tapestry workshops that were operating in southern France as early as the end of the 8th century, long before the Crusades. If these workshops did exist, they must have been operated by or influenced by the Moors.

The first tapestries that we are certain were made in Europe were woven in the workshops of monasteries. As the wealth of princes and merchants grew, so did the demand for more luxury goods. By the 14th century, Paris had become the main city of French tapestry production. From then until the present the history of tapestry has been centered mainly in France and Flanders (now Belgium and northern France).

Most early tapestry designs were simple patterns of geometric shapes and the symbols of heraldry. Around 1360, birds and small animals began to be represented more often. Then in less than 10 years most of the important factories began to produce tapestries woven in sets that illustrated religious texts, stories of knighthood, and scenes from contemporary life. Although these tapestries were more naturalistic than work from the previous era they were still woven in the flat, decorative patterns typical of earlier work.

The Gothic period was a time of great cathedral building. To add color to the stone buildings, artists made beautiful stained-glass windows and hung tapestries. Pictures of Biblical scenes awed and educated churchgoers. Tapestries were also useful in sectioning off parts of large churches for special rites and ceremonies and in halting the drafts that flowed through the spacious churches.

Best Pre-employment Test Use Ability Based Sales Assessment Testing, Not Sales Aptitude Tests

The old-style pre employment Sales Personality Tests and Sales Aptitude Tests often try to disguise themselves as Sales Assessment Tests, which they are really not. Conventional personality tests are “blind” to the impact of a job applicant’s experience, sales training and knowledge of sales techniques. For example, a fresh college graduate with zero sales experience and a top producing sales superstar with 25 years of sales experience may both score 85% on a Pre Employment Sales Personality Test (or Pre-employment Sales Aptitude Test) if they both share similar personality traits. However, in the real world of selling the sales superstar may outsell the inexperienced salesperson by up to twenty to one. There is a much better way to hire good experienced salespeople, by using a “Real” Sales Assessment Test, as this article explains.

While pre employment Sales Personality Tests or Sales Aptitude Tests may offer some value towards recruiting inexperienced entry level salespeople, there is a much better way of hiring good experienced salespeople, using a sales ability based Sales Assessment Test such as The JOY Tests (TM) of Total Sales Ability (TM) from Dan Joy, Inc.

How Can You Determine Which is the Best Pre Employment Test for Sales?

There is a lot more to success in selling than just personality, aptitude or lack of call reluctance. One can have the right “sales personality” or “sales aptitude” but if they don’t possess or learn good sales skills and techniques, they are not very likely to succeed in the sales profession. There are also people who can call incessantly, but cannot close.

Instead of testing for just sales aptitude or sales personality, the best approach is to test for Total Sales Ability ™. A good sales assessment test can reduce subjectivity and guesswork, and help sales recruitment agencies and corporate sales recruitment people make more objective hiring decisions. The JOY Tests ™ of Total Sales Ability ™ from Dan Joy, Inc., are such sales assessment tests. They may be used for pre-employment testing as well as post-hire evaluations for promotion, retention or training purposes.

The conventional pre-employment Sales Personality Tests or Sales Aptitude Tests are often inadequate for hiring top-producing experienced salespeople, and should not be confused with real pre employment Sales Tests or pre-employment Sales Assessments.

Common Sales Recruiting Mistakes:

A sales hiring mistake can cost an employer up to $100,000 or more. Many sales recruitment firms and employers are deluged with sales resumes, but have no way of knowing who can really sell. So, they often tend to hire someone with whom they “feel comfortable”, who is “like them”, who “looks good”, or who has “industry knowledge”. None of that necessarily means that the person can actually sell.

Same Sales Assessments for Pre Employment Testing and Post Hire Evaluations:

As an employer, you would ideally want to invest in Sales Assessment Tests which can not only be used as pre-employment tests but also for post-hire evaluations for promotion, retention or training purposes. Furthermore, you should be able to test Business Development professionals at different career levels, e.g., a Salesperson, Sales Manager, Sales Director or VP of Sales & Marketing. If the same Sales Assessments can also be used for testing Manufacturer’s Reps, Sales Engineers, Distributors and Franchisees, that would be even better. There is one Sales Assessment Test which does all of the above.

Recommendation:

The JOY Tests ™ of Total Sales Ability ™ from Dan Joy, Inc., meet all of the criteria above for good well-rounded Sales Assessment Tests. For a limited time only, prospective employers can get 10 Free Sales Assessment Tests (Pre Employment Screening Tests) to help them hire great sales executives by following the link in the “About the Author” or Bio / Resource box below or by visiting the website of Dan Joy Inc., directly through any major search engine.

Finding Employment And Jobs For Fat People

Many employers still discriminate against certain people in the community although they will rigorously deny this if confronted. It has been proven through research that more often than not the attractive person will be chosen for the post, even if they do not have the sufficient qualifications. Jobs for fat people are few and far between though there are people that can be considered naturally fat or built bigger than others. There is a definitive difference between being unhealthily obese, and what is considered being naturally overweight. Many people are a little heavier, though in peak health, and no matter what weight loss pills, potions, or diets, they go on, nothing will change this fact. If you are one of these people you will find getting employment a lot more difficult because of subtle discrimination in the marketplace against fat people.

Society has been brainwashed against fat people

weight loss manufacturers, health and medical industries have labeled fat a dirty word and the social pressure put on people that are a little rounder than others are enormous and unfair. What is even worse is that jobs for fat people are not really advertised, so no matter how well qualified fat people are job hunting is ten times harder. Finding employment can be frustrating to say the least, and because of these pressures it is possible that you could start comfort eating binges and go from being naturally overweight to obese. Your current weight may be apt for your frame, and through eating normally you do not gain weight; and on diets do not lose any either. Consider that your body may have reached a natural balance and you are going to have to accept that you are a little rounder than others. The media and advertising weight loss products and dieting has brainwashed society into thinking that being even a little over weight is totally unacceptable. This has even filtered into business and employment sectors and finding jobs for fat people has become extremely difficult because of discrimination against the fat people community.

Where to look for jobs for Fat people

No doubt the best possible places to look for jobs for fat people would be within a fat people social community, because here there may be employment agencies and employers that do not discriminate on the way you are built, what color you are, whether you are short or tall or a little overweight. The internet has opened many social communities already, and no doubt there is a fat social community that you can join and feel at home plus there maybe jobs for fat people or you can offer employment if you have positions available. It will also be discovered on these fat social networks that employers and agencies that do not discriminate against fat people, have the option of advertising positions freely. The fat people community is a group of people that have the friendliest personalities around, and those business that offer jobs for fat people will end up employing the most dedicated and friendly staff which will certainly end up being valuable assets to any institution.

Are you an employment agency with a lame Excuse?

Many companies will insist that they do not discriminate against fat people for fear of reprisals, but of course they will too subtle to be detected. When you apply for the job advertised, you will probably be wasting your time and will get a notification that the job has been filled by someone better qualified than you. Naturally there is nothing you can do about this. This is what makes hunting for jobs for fat people more than frustrating. More than likely you will be better off not working for a company like this anyway. When you are looking for employment, then you will definitely enjoy better results by seeking out jobs for fat people at employers that will accept your qualifications rather than the way you are built. The internet is the best place where you will find solutions regarding jobs for fat people, and with a little effort you will also find a social network community dedicated to fat people that you can also call home!

Employment Disputes How A Solicitor Can Help You

If youre employing other people, theres always a possibility that you may end up being involved in an employment dispute. In this article, we take a look at how a solicitor can help you to resolve employment disputes, should they arise.

The chances of being involved in an employment dispute can be minimised by ensuring that you follow the correct procedures when advertising vacancies, recruiting staff, drawing up terms and conditions of employment and making staff redundant. However, you may find that a member of staff is unhappy with an aspect of your employment and decides to take this further. Alternatively, you may be unsatisfied with an employees performance and decide to take action, in which case a dispute may arise.

Grievance and Disciplinary Proceedings

Most issues arising between an employer and employees should initially be dealt with through the employers internal grievance or disciplinary procedures. Therefore, its important that you provide details of these procedures in your companys staff handbook and that all staff can access a copy of these easily. Its also vital that your grievance and disciplinary procedures comply with current employment law, so its worth asking your employment solicitor to help you to draw them up and review them regularly.

If an employee decides to raise a grievance or you decide that you need to take disciplinary action in respect of an employees performance or behaviour, consult your employment solicitor as soon as possible. Your solicitor will be able to discuss the specific case with you and advise you about how best to proceed. By doing this, you can rest assured that you are complying with relevant employment law throughout the process.

Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration

Issues between an employer and employee are often able to be resolved during an internal grievance or disciplinary procedure. However, sometimes further discussions are necessary. There are three main processes available mediation, conciliation and arbitration.

Mediation involves the employer and employee discussing the situation with an independent party, known as a mediator. The mediator can often help the employer and employee to come to an agreement without needing to take the dispute to an employment tribunal. Conciliation is a very similar process, also involving a mediator. However, conciliation usually takes place when an employee is considering taking his or her employer to an employment tribunal or has already made a claim to an employment tribunal.

The third process, arbitration, is similar but the independent party involved, the arbitrator, listens to both sides of the dispute and makes a firm decision about the case.

Many firms of solicitors provide assistance with mediation, conciliation and arbitration processes and these can be quicker and cheaper solutions to employment disputes than going to an employment tribunal.

Employment Tribunals

If you are unable to settle a dispute with your employees, your employee may decide to make a claim and take you to an employment tribunal. At an employment tribunal, the case will be heard by a panel which will usually include a qualified employment judge and the panel will make a decision and decide whether compensation should be awarded. Employment tribunals hear cases relating to a number of different types of employment issues, including unfair dismissal, discrimination and breach of contract. Decisions made by an employment tribunal are legally binding.

If an employee decides to take their case to an employment tribunal, you should consult your employment solicitor as soon as possible. Your employment solicitor will be able to discuss the process with you, help you to prepare your case and represent you at the tribunal.

This article is intended as a general guide only and provides an overview of some of the legal issues that may need to be considered. It does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. We recommend that you seek professional advice before taking action. No liability can be accepted by us for any action taken or not taken as a result of this information.

Pope to bewitch Europe and mislead the masses!

Watch for the pagan sorcerer-pope to start performing many supernatural deeds, counterfeit miracles, to mislead the masses and get them eating out of his hand to support the Vatican’s elect to “defend” Europe and “Western Christian Civilization” and murder any who oppose them.

Daniel 11:36

The King Who Exalts Himself 36 “The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place. (Antiochus Epiphanes – “god in the flesh” – was only a type of the unholy Terror about to be unleashed).

Acts 8:9-11

Simon the Sorcerer 9Now for some time a man named Simon had practiced sorcery in the city and amazed all the people of Samaria. He boasted that he was someone great, 10and all the people, both high and low, gave him their attention and exclaimed, “This man is the divine power known as the Great Power.” 11They followed him because he had amazed them for a long time with his magic.

2 Thessalonians 2:7-12

7For the secret power of lawlessness is already at work; but the one who now holds it back will continue to do so till he is taken out of the way. 8And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destroy by the splendor of his coming. 9The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with the work of Satan displayed in all kinds of counterfeit miracles, signs and wonders, 10and in every sort of evil that deceives those who are perishing. They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11For this reason God sends them a powerful delusion so that they will believe the lie 12and so that all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness.

Revelation 13:13-17

13And he performed great and miraculous signs, even causing fire to come down from heaven to earth in full view of men. 14Because of the signs he was given power to do on behalf of the first beast, he deceived the inhabitants of the earth. He ordered them to set up an image in honor of the beast who was wounded by the sword (final revival of the unholy Roman Empire of the German Nation) and yet lived. 15He was given power to give breath to the image of the first beast (imperial restoration), so that it could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed. 16He also forced everyone, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, 17so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of his name.

Biblical prophecy announces that the European Union will morph into a bloodthirsty BEAST, a politico-ECONOMIC superpower under the evil influences of the Vatican who will seduce it with satanic offers of all the kingdoms of this world and great riches in exchange for enforcing their idolatrous traditions, especially SUNDAY WORSHIP.

Watch for the pope and his “man of the hour” to storm the world stage, to put on a command performance, Satan at his best; the darkest before Dawn prophecies being fulfilled before our very eyes culminating with the real Jesus Christ’s return from Heaven to make the diabolical duo history!

This is bad news/good news: Beyond Babylon: Europe’s Rise and Fall.

David Ben-Ariel is a Christian-Zionist writer in Ohio and author of Beyond Babylon: Europe’s Rise and Fall. With a focus on the Middle East and Jerusalem, his analytical articles help others improve their understanding of that troubled region. Check out Beyond Babylon.

Employee Background Screening -2

Founded in 1993, Onicra has been a leader in the field of corporate consultancy and human resource services. Onicra has been dedicated to providing a viable commercial identity and human-resource related expertise to companies, commercial corporations and commercial institutions. At Onicra, the human resource services and consultations utilize powerful and accurate statistical tools to facilitate accurate analytical and inferential data, thus correctly rating and assessing potential for commercial growth and performance. To this date, some of Indias biggest and most respected companies like Mahindra & Mahindra, Volkswagen, HDFC Bank and Genpact form an illustrious resume of Onicras clientele.

Among its numerous consequential industry-oriented services, Onicra offers the services of Employee background screening. These are in the nature of extensive pre employment checks initiated by Onicra for a particular employee to assess his/her potential for growth, commercial aptitude and efficiency. Onicra goes through extensive personalized individual data, records, achievement statements, certificates and appraisals for each candidate to generate a unique rating, which is extremely accurate by industry standards. Onicra has developed its own system of ratings, using powerful analytical and statistical tools like the PRTS (Performance Rating and Tracking System), enabling an almost spot-on assessment of the potential and the job-worthiness of an employee.

The pre employment screening process facilitated by Onicra assists companies and commercial corporations identify and cultivate the best, most talented and efficient personnel as their workforce. To do this, Onicra maintains an extensive database that tracks and keeps tally of even the minutest relevant details of an employee that could affect or influence his professional career. By setting high standards for quality for the pre employment verification process, Onicra eliminates the possibilities of having wrong people at the wrong jobs, or possibilities of employee incompetence, ineligibility and incompatibility. The vast benefits of the extremely essential employee background screening processes directly accrue to the HR departments, who become free to direct their resources to training and honing employees.

The employee background screening procedures instituted and implemented by Onicra helps to maintain a level of trust between the employer and the employee. These protect companies against fraudulent employees, identity theft and dangers possibly arising from misrepresentation of vital information. The employment screening service offered by Onicra involves extensive checks and verification procedures on employees personal, social and academic background, legal reports and records and also records for substance abuse (if any). References and appraisals are also gathered and collated from previous employers, acquaintances, family members and colleagues.

The Employee Background Screening services offered by Onicra incorporate extensive verification procedures as stated below. Education Checks (verification of academic and professional qualifications) are used to determine the academic validity of a C.V to determine the eligibility of a potential employee. Pre employment checks are carried out to screen employment details pertaining to previously held designations, employment tenure, emoluments etc. Often, this acts as a reflective index of the employees temperament, aptitude and capability. Onicra also checks the applicants criminal records (if any) with law enforcement authorities and existing criminal records databases. A meticulous verification procedure is also done about the candidate with the person enlisted as his/her reference.

Onicra also implements rigorous checks for possible representations and corruption of data in the applicants C.V, substance and drug abuse records (if any) and checks for criminal litigations. Onicra ascertains the applicants identity as well, through checks for PAN Cards, driving licenses, licenses, Passports and other vital documentation. The verification process is implemented to be a perpetual, continuous process, accommodating possibilities for changes of results over courses of time. Thus, Onicra revolutionized background checks in India by appropriating a series of checks that are best suited locally.

Fundamentals of a Well-Drafted Employment Handbook

Providing a well written employment handbook is critical for all present-day employers. Whether the company is a multi-billion dollar Fortune 500 firm or a small family owned repair shop, having employment policies documented is something a company cannot survive without. For assistance, companies should consider utilizing a Professional Employer Organization, which can greatly help create a quality handbook.

A PEO, or Professional Employer Organization, can craft the handbook, or the company can take on this task. Several key points should be included. The verbiage used should be chosen carefully, leaving very little room for misinterpretation. Here are some basic fundamentals:

1. Is the company abiding by “at-will” employment? Any hire in the USA is considered “at-will” unless there is a binding contract or collective bargaining group (union). In other words, the employer may terminate the employee without any cause, and likewise the employee may quit without cause. The PEO or the company should review the laws in the state where the company is headquartered to confirm the states at-will rule.

2. Note that any unlawful discrimination can impose an exception to the at-will doctrine and can place the employer at risk. Laws exist regarding race, color, religion, sex, and age of employees. Any PEO should be well versed in these laws and the handbook should reflect the laws appropriately.

3. Use caution when referring to any length of employment. Care should be exercised when discussing the term. Any reference to a length of time can be construed as a contract and can subject the company to challenges if the employee is terminated.

INCORRECT: “After 90 days the employee will be reviewed for pay increase depending on performance.” This implies that the employee will be able to work a full 90 days without fear of termination.

CORRECT: “If employment continues to 90 days, the employee will be reviewed based on performance.” There is no room for misinterpretation in this statement, and gives the employer room to terminate whenever necessary.

4. When awarding any type of benefit, the employment handbook should not suggest that the employee will be around long enough to earn it. Any supervisor should use caution with something as simple as acknowledging employees tenure.

INCORRECT: “Mary has been a part of this organization for 10 years. We look forward to her being with us another 10 years.” This can easily be construed as a contract for another 10 years.

CORRECT: “Mary has been a part of this organization for 10 years. We are proud of her service with our company and wish her much success in the future.”

5. When creating employment contracts, the company or PEO should use terminology that cannot be misinterpreted.

INCORRECT: “The term of employment is 6 months. At the end of 6 months the employee will be evaluated for additional contracts which may be longer term.” This leaves no room for the employer if the contract employee fails to perform during the 6 month contract.

CORRECT: “During the 6 month contract the employee is expected to perform at company standards at the supervisors direction. Failure to perform at company standards would be cause to terminate the contract. If the 6 month contract is completed to the companys satisfaction, a review will be conducted to determine if additional contracts will be offered.”

The company or the PEO company should pay close attention to these fundamentals. Minimizing company risk is essential for any organization and protects not only the employer but the employee from undue harm. Having a PEO assist in crafting the employee handbook can provide the company with the assistance needed to mitigate those risks.

The Book of Daniel, Islam, and Europe

Brit Am Israel
Jerusalem News-406
Contents:

1. The Book of Daniel, Islam, and Europe with Comment by David Ben Ariel

Commentaries to the Book of Daniel quoted in the Brit-Am Commentary understand the Vision of Nebuchadnezzar as explained by Daniel as predicting an eventual attempted union between Ishmael (Islam) and Europe. e.

Such a union is NOW in preparation. See extracts from relevant articles under the heading We Were Warned!:”Eurabia” in The Book of DANIEL?

The articles in effect describe a merger already in the process of preparation of Continental Europe with Ishmael (Arabic-Islam). This is to be carried through at the expense of Israel and the USA.

It should be noted that the EU heavily funds the Palestinians and that the Palestinian propaganda that brings about the suicide bombings etc would not be possible without EU funding. It should also be noted that the Israeli left-wing with movements such as Peace Now etc. also receives substantial funds from the EU.

The recent violence at Amona had a lot of causes and many interested parties were involved. It would not probably however have taken place were it not for legal actions by the EU subsidized Peace Now movement that could not stand to see nine half-legal Jewish buildings standing in the territory of Benjamin despite the fact that the Arabs have more than 30,000 illegal buildings (that are recognized as illegal without speaking of those that are illegal and not recognized) throughout Israel with much more than 3000 in the Jerusalem area alone.

In view of the above the following letter is interesting though I personally feel that the expression used “German-Jesuit” is misleading, a red herring. At all events the EU is in part culpable.

Comment by DAVID BEN ARIEL

Shalom Yair,

Your Brit Am Israel commentaries were most interesting on the possibility of “Eurabia,” especially in light of how the EU has been guilty of aiding and abetting many Arab countries whose goal is to wipe Israel off the map (Ps. 83:4).

However, it appears that “Eurabia” is dead now since Europe is beginning to suffer from the Islamofascists and will soon turn on them with full fury, as you acknowledge somewhat by giving an honorable mention that:

“There also exists a school of thought that identifies the FEET AND TOES of the great statue with the mixed group of nations comprising the European Union or that the EU is a precursor for a similar organization that will fulfill the prophecy.”

Both the Arabs and the Jews are going to get brutally betrayed, stomped by the EU jackboot, when the German-Jesuit EU occupies Jerusalem, after having misled the world to trust them to bring peace. This is elaborated upon within:

UN Resolution 181: Blueprint of the Beast?

Shavua tov (good week),
David Ben-Ariel

David Ben-Ariel is a Christian-Zionist writer in Ohio and author of Beyond Babylon: Europe’s Rise and Fall. With a focus on the Middle East and Jerusalem, his analytical articles help others improve their understanding of that troubled region. Check out Beyond Babylon.

Free Criminal Background Checks For Employment – How To Do Them

Conducting free criminal background checks for employment is an economical initial step in screening potential job applicants. When you have narrowed the field down by doing free record research, you will be in a position to spend your money better when engaging an actual commercial search service. In this post we will discuss how you can run free criminal background checks as well as some issues you may run into.

Why running a free criminal background checks for employment BEFORE hiring somebody is a good idea:

These detailed searches will separate good candidates from great applicants very fast. As an example, if you have 2 candidates with equal ability and references, conducting one of these searches will reveal any criminal activity. Even if the activity was minor or was a long time back, it could be the deciding vote when choosing between 2 equal candidates.

Here are two free criminal background check for employment resources you may use right now…

You can complete extremely thorough free research by employing the web. The Net allows you to search public property records, public criminal records, sex offender databases, driving records, credit information, news reports, social media profiles, and more. With that having been said, here are 2 good places to start conducting your research.

Free Criminal Background Checks For Employment Resource #1 – Social Media Websites

With the upward thrust of social media in the last three to five years, searching for profiles of your potential job candidates is a great way to kick-start the free criminal background check process. The comments, photographs and profile info on these internet site alone will help you to find out more about the character and conduct of an individual.

Free Criminal Background Checks For Employment Resource #2 – State Databases

Using nationwide databases is another good method to do free criminal background checks for employment. The best databases include the national Sexual offender registry and the Inmate Search at the federal Bureau of prisons. You may access your State and County Dept of Corrections Offender Search Database for any probable matches.

Some issues you will run into…

The most important challenge of running these inquiries yourself is that it takes time. For instance, if a job applicant truly does have a criminal conviction, statistically it is most probably a misdemeanor and not a felony. This suggests that it won’t appear on a national database but will appear in the County the misdemeanor occurred in.

Knowing this, you’ll need to research each county a person lived and worked in for the previous 7 to 10 years. In addition, there’s more than likely a tiny charge of one or two dollars to pull the final report in each of these counties.

Last thoughts…

While you can get a glance into potential employee’s lives conducting your own free criminal background checks for employment, it will eat your time and still leave you with lots of questions. A better option is to use a criminal background inquiry service that may do all of the examining for you and deliver the results in an easy-to-read report. While you might have to spend a couple of bucks, you and your company will be better off at the end.

Road Trip Across Europe

Have you ever been on a cross country road trip through the States? There are so many strange and unusual roadside attractions if you keep your eyes peeled.

Well, believe it or not, Europe has plenty of fun and interesting roadside attractions, too. And while riding the rails is a nice way to see the continent, and “backpacking through Europe” sounds interesting in theory, renting a car and going on a sight-seeing adventure is better – and less tiresome.

Here’s a scenario of a fun road trip in Europe. Let’s say you have purchased an “open jaw” ticket (flying into one city, departing from another) into Amsterdam, returning from Zurich. I will give a few examples of some places to stop and things to see from point A. to point B.

After picking up your rental car at Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport, head on to Arnhem to visit the Openluchtmuseum, the Netherlands’ National Heritage Museum. This is an open air museum located in over 100 acres of woods. Here you will see a number of re-enactors demonstrating the way of life in the olden days, historic farmhouses, mills and homes. It is a full day of adventure and learning for visitors of all ages!

Next stop on the roadside attraction adventure: Brussels! A neat place to visit is the Cantillon Brewers Museum. This is a family-run brewery where specialty Belgian beers (Lambic, Faro, Kriek and Gueuze) are made. Cantillon was founded in 1900 and nothing has changed since then. The brewing process and [most of] the equipment is the same today as it was over 100 years ago. You will get a firsthand glimpse into how some of the best beer in the world is made; you’ll get to speak with the brewer and learn all about these wonderful beverages and (possibly best of all?) will receive the honor of tasting a traditional Gueuze-Lambic!

Traveling eastward from Belgium, another destination on the itinerary is Munich. Of course, you’ll want to stop by what is probably the world’s most famous beer hall: Hofbruhaus. But, after that, why not stop by the Neuschwantstein Castle? Sitting atop a rugged hill overlooking two lakes and the small village of Hohenschwangau, this 19th century palace is a sight to behold. So beautiful is it, that it’s appeared in many movies and was the inspiration for the castle in Disney’s Sleeping Beauty.

Travel Guide
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Employment and Economy Announces a Photo Contest on Projects Co-Financed by the Structural Funds in

It has two categories, one for the ERDF and the other for the European Social Fund

Spain, May 26, 2013 – The Ministry of Employment and the Economy, through the Directorate General Economic Strategy Development and European Affairs, announces a photo contest on projects co-financed by the Structural Funds, which aims to give greater visibility to the actions carried out in the region with European funds and spread among the population the contribution of these to the convergence of Castilla-La Mancha with other European regions.

In the contest, with a deadline open until June 2, be open to all those over 18 years, organizations, companies or entities of any type that have a Facebook profile or previously are friends Castilla Structural Funds -La Mancha. To access it, you must enter the Facebook page of the Structural Funds in Castilla-La Mancha and select “Like”.

Contest participants performed based projects photographs of Castilla-La Mancha and co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) or by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the present through the Facebook page of the Structural Funds to be eligible for one of four prizes to be awarded.

Contest winners will be awarded an iPad 4 Generation (1st place) and a Ebook / Tablet PAPYRE 715 (2nd place) for each category, ESF or ERDF

There are two categories, one for projects co-financed by the ESF, and the second for the ERDF initiatives. Within the category of ESF accept photographs of projects related to training and education, job creation, promotion of innovation and entrepreneurship, equal opportunities between men and women and the fight against social exclusion .

For ERDF, the actions are aimed at developing the knowledge economy, business innovation, the environment, investments in favor of the rehabilitation of the peripheral and social infrastructure, as well as transport, communications and energy.

The participants may be presented with a photograph to one of the categories, choosing one of the four awards. For more information, the legal basis of the contest are available at the following address:

https://www.facebook.com/FondosEstructuralesJCCM

Press Contact: Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Media Relations Consejeria de Empleo y Economia Address: Avda Ireland No 14 512-212-1139 http://www.castillalamancha.es/gobierno/empleoyeconomia

Call The Time – Employment Time Tracking System Firm

These days, many employees are connected to their friends, family and even co-workers via social networking sites like Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.

Many employees think of these sites as a safe place to vent about their frustrations, but that may not be the case.

Fox Business reports on the case of Dawnmarie Souza, whose employment with the American Medical Response was terminated when she posted a long string of expletives about her boss on Facebook. Souza and the National Labor Relations Bureau sued the AMR, and the case was settled out of court.

Is it right for employers to snoop on employees’ Facebook and Twitter accounts? Many workers think their bosses cannot read these posts, but a quick search engine query can often lead managers straight to employees’ social networking presences. Although it may be uncouth to deliberately check up on employees’ pages, employees should not assume that these postings are private. As a manager, you can help prevent these kinds of cases by encouraging employees to come directly to you with complaints, concerns and worries rather than venting on Facebook, where such statements can easily be taken out of context.

There is one area, however, where it is not only easy but acceptable to keep track of your employees – keeping track of their attendance. Using software like Call the Time, your employees can check in from anywhere using their smartphones or landlines. This simple-to-use solution is great way to avoid some of the problems that might have later bubbled up in Facebook statuses.

What to do with a deadbeat worker

Motivating your employees to do their best work can be hard, especially in an economic downturn. If your employees work remotely, rather than in an office, the task can become almost impossible. So what can you do to encourage stellar performances from all your workers?

We all know what its like to work with a deadbeat – somebody who does just enough work to not get fired, but never puts in the extra time and effort to do a great job. A deadbeat employee is always treading the line between success and failure, which makes it difficult for employers to terminate their time at the company, since they always seem to be on the verge of turning it around.

However, nothing is going to change if you don’t get involved and communicate your feelings to the employee. It is important that you lay out the expectations for him or her, making it clear that if they are not met, the worker will be let go. Be sure to define specific metrics, such as a certain number of hours spent working each day, a specific time that the employee must begin work and a certain number of items to be tackled each day.

There are many applications and software programs that can make keeping track of these metrics easier for you, as the employer. One valuable tool is Call the Time, an easy-to-use software solution that lets employees check in from anywhere using smartphones or landlines, allowing managers to keep track of their hours worked, average start times and more.

Benefits Of Hiring A 3rd Party Background Check Company

Pre-employment background checks are more than just a way of avoiding bad hires; they’re also corporations’ best bet for beating negligence court cases. This article reviews why more and more corporations are hiring third party employee background check companies, rather than conducting background checks in-house. Read on to discover the benefits corporations enjoy by outsourcing their employment background checks.

1. Increased applicant privacy.

If an internal employee does your employee background checks, workplace drama can ensue. New hires will be less likely to trust their co-workers charged with employment background screening duties. Third party background checks go a long way in preventing mistrust and gossip. Moreover, they show applicants and employees that you are dedicated to even-handed, fair treatment.

2. Less chance for expensive mistakes.

Did you know that some states require employees to provide applicants with a copy of their employment background screening, even if it’s not specifically requested? Or that it’s illegal to base a hiring decision on court cases that did not result in convictions? Your company could be sued if you fail to follow the letter of the law as far as employee background checks are concerned. Yet few HR managers have the time or legal expertise to avoid all potential background check lawsuits. For this reason, increasing numbers of companies are outsourcing their employment background screening to vendors who have spent decades focused on these issues. Doing so typically results in fewer costly hiring mistakes.

3. Legal protection.

Beyond preventing legal mistakes, outsourcing background screening also grants companies exemption from lawsuits. The federal Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) promises legal immunity for companies that choose to outsource their employment background checks. In other words, your company can avoid lawsuits citing hiring negligence, privacy invasion, and defamation if you outsource your background procedures.

Still, it’s notable that the FCRA still requires companies to notify candidates if they are investigating credit history. Therefore, it’s smart to ask your employee background screening vendor whether they offer forms for applicant notification.

4. Decreased costs.

It would likely take a full-time employee months to research how to legally, respectfully, thoroughly carry out employment background checks. Then, it might take them another few months to locate the investigative resources needed to methodically do employment background screening.

In contrast, third-party, professional background check companies have already developed the understanding and resources needed to effectively run employment background checks, so they can typically deliver the same (or improved) results at a lower cost.

5. More meticulous background checks.

Because professional background check companies specialize in labor investigations, they usually have excellent sources for examining individuals’ history. Having spent hundreds of hours perfecting their screening approach, professional background check companies can typically deliver more thorough investigations than can be achieved in-house.

6. Improved service.

Because they are investigative experts, background check companies offer extra features for their clients, such as adverse action letters. The law states that if you choose not to hire someone based on characteristics such as credit history, you must inform his or her in writing about your decision. An adverse action letter fulfills this duty. Many employment background vendors offer complimentary adverse action letters as part of their employee screening service, saving you time.

There are many reasons for outsourcing your employee background screening process, from lowered costs to improved legal immunity.

How Employment Background Verification Makes the Job Application Stronger

Employers run a background check before hiring people. The background scan could be simple, limited to asking for references. For jobs involving greater responsibility, the background check is more detailed. Employers almost never hire somebody without a background examination.

You could make the job of employers easier by getting your credentials verified. Verification adds a layer of credibility to your profile. Employers are more likely to pay attention to CVs that claim verification. That is why jobseekers willing to go the extra mile to make their resume more attractive always get their resume verified.

Employment verification

Who was your previous employer? What was your role in the organization you worked for prior to that? These are some of the questions that employment background verification answers. Employment background verification is the best way to convince employers that you are not cheating on the resume. It makes the resume more credible.

Recruiter appeal

As more and more employers find candidates for open jobs through recruiters and Hr Consultants, it becomes all the more important to target recruiters during your job search. Recruiters and HR consultants are paid a commission when they help employers locate the right candidate.

Naturally, they are concerned about the quality of talent that they recommend. To convince HR consultants that you are worth a thought, employment background verification is necessary. It will take a burden off the recruiter’s mind — that of your credibility. And any assistance you provide the HR consultants in the form of a verified resume is likely to bring in huge returns in the form of greater cooperation from recruiters.

Avoid negative fallout of errors

There are a lot of people out there looking for jobs. Competition is tough, and employers are often suspicious of people whose claims do not match the facts at hand. Employment background verification prevents one potential problem — the mismatch of facts and information reported.

For example, if you forget the date of your previous employment, or your exact designation, and report incorrect details, HR consultants will not process your resume any further. While you might have made a simple human error, employers and HR consultants are not likely to be very forgiving. This is why performing employment background verification is a good idea. It removes data inaccuracies and assures you as well as the employer or HR consultants that you have the proper credentials.

Bonus – education verification

You can make the employer even more positively inclined in your favor by offering verified details of your educational background. This is particularly recommended if you have no prior work experience. When fresh out of high school or university, you have to compete with more experienced, worldly wise peers for a job. By offering verified information, you can assure employers and HR consultants that you are reliable and your credentials are foolproof.

Many resume writing companies offer employment background verification as an additional service. They offer special packages and discounts. You could choose a package where both employment background verification and education verification are included. Or, you could use a package that offers exclusive employment verification.

There are a lot of ways to improve your standing in the eyes of HR consultants and potential employers. Employment background verification is just one of these methods. Click2resume.com has been offering resume writing as well as background accreditation to jobseekers, to help them find jobs faster and more easily.

Employers Are Turning To Using Hair In Employment Drug Testing

Employers in the last decade found it hard to rely on drug testing to ensure that they are hiring employees that are free from banned substances. However, the adoption of more stringent rules and restrictions at drug test sites and laboratories have made it harder for drug users to cheat. The variation of drug testing programs also allow choices and more certainty about the test results.

Urinalysis has been the most common and often used drug testing method. However, this is also the easiest to trick and cheat. Diluting urines with water or other colorless fluid is enough to make the drug traces virtually undetectable. To reinforce security on this kind of testing, most companies and drug testing laboratories prefer on-site specimen collection. A drug test technician either visits the site to collect and test samples from workers or candidates for testing visit the laboratories where their urines are collected and tested immediately. Candidates are not allowed to leave the testing room until the test is finished. This ensures that the urine samples collected are not tampered or diluted. However, on-site collection is awkward especially for women because the candidates are actually supervised while collecting their samples. The testing of oral fluid or saliva is also implemented but not popular. Though oral fluid can be collected easily and are not susceptible to alteration, results based on this test are still suspicious. This is because drug traces in saliva can be undetectable after a day. Hence, if a user stops taking drugs a day or two before the test, he may be given a negative mark and pass the test.

Newer technology in drug tests now allow for hair testing. In the present, this is regarded as the most foolproof drug test. Drug residue from drug use, whether ingested or injected, remains inside the hair cuticle. Even if the user bleached, colored, or cut his hair, the residue would still be present and can be detected. This is also very popular since the collection of samples is not difficult and possible without embarrassing the tester and the candidate. Candidates do not need to worry about ruined hairstyles since the snips are done in inconspicuous places and are not noticeable. The latter kind of drug testing are also more cost-efficient for employers. Though the fees for the test is pricier than urinalysis, the company saves more because hair testing can effectively weed out drug abusers from the company’s ranks. This is because a drug-dependent employee cost a company as much as $10,000 in terms of unproductivity, absences, and benefits. They are usually the perpetrators of office theft. Plus, the employees would be deterred from using drugs because they know that is cheat-proof. All in all, investing in drug and hair testing are worthy expenses for the employer.

The Easy Route To Medical Schools Or Dental Schools In Europe

EuroMed, one of the nations oldest and most reputable study abroad providers. We are a growing organization that helps hundreds of students each year to study medicine abroad or to study dentistry abroad at leading medical universities and dental universities from all over the old continent.

With more than 90 programs in 31 cities to study in europe, EuroMed is dedicated to broadening our global reach and continuing our commitment to offering students outstanding european universities options coupled with every-day opportunities for cultural immersion.

EuroMed is composed of an academic consortium of more than 249 leading european medical universities. EuroMed consortium members assist with academic policy for EuroMed, and have the opportunity to participate in various EuroMed committees.

EuroMed holds an annual conference each year for its members to discuss topics related to the field of study abroad and study overseas, including medical schools and dental schools standards and assessment, faculty and program development, and how to maximize the academic, personal, and professional benefits of study abroad. Unlike most study abroad providers, EuroMed also employs a full-time Dean of Students, who establishes and overseas our health and safety guidelines, and consults with the EuroMed Centers to maintain high standards of safety.

We also offer assistance for personal statement and interview preparation for a place at UK Medical School or Dental School for those students sitting A/AS levels for the first time or as re-sit candidates.
EuroMed is comprised of doctors, dentists and profesors from around the world. We have worked together for many years winning places in Medicine & Dentistry for many European students who were unsucessful at gaining a place for medicine/dentistry at their first attempt. All began their chosen Univeristy Course, both within and outside Britain, and began their chosen degree course that same academic year.
We are very proud of our continued success and expansion, ever since we were first established. We have recently been fortunate to gain the assistance of two university professors from Slovakia and Poland.
We cater for applicants that may not hold a degree in a scientific field and also for those who have a non-scientific background. These applicants should apply to the pre-med courses offered. The minimum age for application is 17 years of age.

All applicants that contact EuroMed are likely to secure a place at a Medical or Dental School in Europe.
EuroMed offers the opportunity to study medicine abroad or to study dentistry abroad:
Medical/Dental degree taught in English within Europe. Graduates would be allowed to work immediately in UK or anywhere else in Europe inc USA and Canada without having to complete an entry exam. Degrees are GDC and GMC recognised.
in a country where living expenses are cheaper on an international scale
with the reassurance that your career is being helped by us before, during and after graduation
……all this and peace of mind.
At this moment, EuroMed accepts applications for the following European Universities:
study abroad in Pcs
study abroad in Szeged
study abroad in Comenius
study abroad in Kosice
study abroad in Charles
study abroad in Brno
study abroad in Krakow
study abroad in Lublin
We can also accept an early study abroad application from students that wish to hold a place at a european university as a back-up option, should they not win a place at their chosen Medical school or at their choose Dental school at their first attempt
For admission to study medicine abroad or to study dentistry abroad, into any of our listed European Universities, applicants must have completed secondary school education and performed up to AS-level.
All selected applicants must pass a 2 hour 30 minute multiple-choice examination paper, invigilated by the professors of the medical school or of the dental school, consisting of Chemistry and Biology topics. A list of examination topics will be provided by EuroMed to you, hence early study abroad application is advisable. Each student will then be interviewed by the teaching professors. Students must succeed in both exam and interview to secure a place.
All successful applicants will be issued a formal acceptance document issued from the medical or dental school immediately after the interview.

At EuroMed all interview courses are run by very experienced medical and dental tutors with in-depth knowledge of the ST interview process, communication skills and NHS issues.
EuroMed is pleased to announce that we are offering scholarships to those students who intend to study Medicine or Dentistry in Europe.

The scholarship will be awarded to those students who, in the opinion of our representative, have contributed most to their community, over the last 12 months.

The scholarship will be granted to students who are commencing their studies in September.

http://www.studymedicineabroad.co.uk
http://www.medicaluniversitieseurope.co.uk

Employment Law Solicitors Are The Best Professionals To Be Consulted At Times Of Crisis In The Work

This is an obvious fact that knowing the various ins and outs of the employment law Leeds takes years worth of the fruitful study and the much enriched experience working at the heart of the industry without any second thought. The simple fact of the matter is that most of the people, whether the members of the staff or the business owners, have a very limited knowledge of the employment law Leeds and are really unaware that they are protected by a raft of the various laws and some of the measures which are designed to support both the employers and the employees in the workplace in a major way. From the national minimum wage legislation to the holiday pay, the Leed”s workforce has numerous rights that must be very well protected and particularly followed every day of the year with much of the strict discipline.
Those tasked with providing some of the most effective and customized advice and some expert knowledge on the subject of employment law is the employment law solicitors. If there is ever any probable confusion or some suspicion that someone”s rights as a worker are being undermined, the employment law Leeds solicitors must be very ideally contacted immediately for some amicable solutions. The Role of an Employment Lawyer is indeed vital without any second thought. No matter the size of a company, the employers and the employees must very closely follow all the major aspects of the employment law. Leeds and other major cities in the United Kingdom have thousands of the various businesses in various sectors which employ the millions of the people. Protecting of the rights of these workers and also offering useful advice to the employers is the real vital job that the ELL”s employment lawyers in Leeds are tasked with.
The Employment law Leeds can be incredibly complex, so the only way that various issues can be dealt with or the various questions that can be answered is by contacting someone who is a true specialist in the field of employment law Leeds. Leeds firms help the people every day and also bring with them some very successful cases against the employers who have undermined their workers” rights, or to support the employers along with the various legal ammunition needed to control a troublesome employee.
Easy Access to the Employment Law Solicitors speaking to an employment law solicitor is a worry free experience for sure. With the employment law Leeds, the ELL”s employment lawyers in Leeds have certainly an open door policy to the people of all ages and the various backgrounds. Remember that these are the professional people who want their knowledge and the various experience to be used to bring some clarity to the overall employment law Leeds – for both the employers and the employees alike.

Tall Tales, America’s Own Super Heroes

I guess there’s always a little kid left hiding in all of us. Some of us just can’t seem to leave Superman and batman behind, while grown little girls still want to believe in fairytales and princes. Myself, I love the Tall Tales of early America. Not surprisingly, Australia developed their share of Tall Tales and bigger than life heroes.

I can still get enthralled by Paul Bunyan’s feats, love Johnny Appleseed, and John Henry is still my hero; who can forget Calamity Jane! The tall tale is a fundamental element of American folk literature. A Tall Tale is like today’s super heroes in that they are bigger or stronger than real people and they solve problems in super-human ways. That is where the similarity ends. Super Hero stories and movies weave the story to be somewhat believable, as if sometime in the distant future it could happen. A Tall Tale is a competition between story tellers to see who can exaggerate the most, and pepper it with sarcastic humor. They solve everyday, unsolvable problems in a bigger than life, humorous way (Paul Bunyan hooking his ox to curvy logging roads and pulling them straight, or Pecos Bill lassoing a tornado to subdue it).

Tall tales are all American. The need for the supernatural is universal; Fairy tales in Europe, Genies in the middle east and Wee Folk in Irland. Meanwhile America sat around campfires and fireplaces and told our Tall Tales, each tale outdoing the last. Each one meant to bring a laugh and a taller tale from the person next to you.

Although the most popular of the tall tales originated in the west and seemed to flourish everywhere the tough men of the American Frontier would gather, many came from east of the Mississippi. The toughest boatman on the Mississippi River was Mike Fink, and a their own Man-of-steel was a Pittsburg steel worker – Joe Magarac. Paul Bunyon had a cousin in West Virginia, another lumberjack named Tony Beaver.

Tall Tales were so pupular because everyone could be a story teller. Told in the vernacular of the day, they possessed a homey feel and anyone with a little imagination could spin one or ad to a tale already started. You could invent your own character, add to one someone else started, or take a real live character (Calamity Jane) and make them larger than life. It was all fun, and helped take the edge off of some pretty rough days trying to scratch a living.

Unfortunately, since these were passed along from campfire to campfire, many got lost forever. Fortunately, as America settled into a civilized society, some of these wonderful tales were written down by our literary-minded keepers of the past. You can find compilations of Tale Tales in any library, or quicker yet, by typing “tall tales” in any search engine you can get a whole gaggle of them to read and laugh at.

Magnetizing Europe Tour Packages

Europe is worlds seven largest continents and is one of the favorite tourist destinations among the tourist. It is a favorite honeymoon destination in the world. Europe has a great blend of cultures which makes it perfect holiday destination. Europe tour packages of the yuva trip provide great opportunity to speculate different cultures, languages and unique architecture.
Smell the taste of Europe with some of the loved destinations. They are England, Switzerland, Germany, and France. A Europe tour package of yuva trip takes you some of the important cities. They are London, Amsterdam, Paris, Florence and many more. While on a tour to Europe there are lots of things to do and see. You can enjoy the trip with some sightseeing to the world heritage sites.
You can book your Europe tour packages with cheap flight tickets. Europe boasts the beauty of nature, water ways, cruises, and unique architecture. Every year thousands of tourist visit to explore the uncovered beauty of these places. There various recreational activities that can help in making your trip a memorable one. The Europe packages provided by yuva trip are cost effective.
Europe Tour Packages are never ending packages. To explore more about the culture of Europe; you must speculate the annual festivals which are held in Europe. They will help in exploring more cultural and historical treasure troves of Europe. There are thousands of festivals that are held each year.
Europe tour packages will make trip a cake walk for you as they will help in booking cheap flight tickets, hotel booking, and other services which are necessary for the trip. Europe tour packages are the gateway to most of the European countries.
Europe also has a vibrant nightlife as there are thousands clubs, discotheques and world class pubs. Europe tour packages will help in making taste buds relish with exquisite cuisines of Europe. The continent is also famous for its wine. There are world class rich wines. Europe tour packages makes eyes astonished with the beauty from Rome to London. Yuva trip also provides Europe to be as the honeymoon destination with exotic honeymoon packages. A visit to Europe is itself a worthy experience. Spring is the best time to visit Europe with your loved ones.

Employment Screening – Why Not Do It Inhouse

No matter what size your business is, if you’re hiring someone, you need employment screening. But the question is, should you do the employment screening task yourself (e.g., through your HR Department) or outsource it to a specialist? If you do it yourself you’ll save some out-of-pocket money but you’ll need to gain online access to a variety of public records databases, such as criminal records databases, sexual registries, civil lawsuits, and others, plus you’ll need a working familiarity with the Fair Credit Reporting Act and state laws governing this area (and, by the way, this is a closely-regulated area).

On top of all that you’ll need to find the time to check your job candidate’s previous employers and verify his/her college degree (if applicable). All the above is of course plausible, but do you really have the time or inclination? Probably not, so for most companies today – including even most large ones – outsourcing employment screening is the preferred solution. You simply submit your applicant’s application/resume information plus a signed release from him/her to your employment screening outsourcer, who then completes the background-check work and provides a finished Web-based report (secured by a password) within two or three days.

Types of Employment Screening Searches

An employment screening report can consist of nothing more than a criminal background check. However, for most positions, you’ll need a lot more information than this. Here’s a list of various factors you should check out and include in your employment screening finished report (and as you’ll see, gathering all this inhouse can be pretty difficult, which is a strong argument for outsourcing) —

— Identity Verification – Making certain your candidate is who he/she claims to be
— Address History – Determining where your candidate has lived for past seven years
— Social Security Verification – Is your candidate submitting a valid SSN? If not, this is a red flag requiring further investigation.
— Verification of past employment – Has he/she actually held the positions claimed during the time periods claimed? Did candidate leave in the good graces of the former employer or was he/she terminated?
— Verification of Education – This one is frequently fudged or exaggerated. Most employment screening companies now utilize the services of specialized firms who specialize in the verification of college and tech school degrees. This is much easier and more reliable than trying to contact college registrar offices.
— Civil Suits – Civil suits are public records and can be accessed. They can provide a revealing look into the lifestyle of the job candidate.
— Bankruptcies and Liens – Another good lifestyle-indicator
— Sexual Registry Search and Terrorist Watch List Search – Your candidate is unlikely to show up on these lists but it’s prudent to run the searches.
— Criminal Records – This one can be extremely tricky since criminal records in the U.S. are widely scattered by jurisdiction. So your candidate may have no criminal convictions in California yet be a convicted felon in Utah. If you only check California, you’ll never know. Thus you need an employment screening company that runs nationwide, not just local or statewide, criminal records searches. But that’s not all. To be FCRA-compliant, you also need to conduct an in-person search of local criminal records (i.e., a researcher should visit the local courthouse and conduct an in-person search of records). The nationwide criminal database search, by itself, does not meet FCRA requirements and leaves you open legally, thus largely defeating your whole purpose of running the employment screening report in the first place.

More detailed information on employment screening issues and legal requirements is provided in the article cited below.

Becoming A Self-employed Entrepreneur The Netherlands

Registration in the Dutch trade register is compulsory for every company and every legal entity, including ‘freelance’ and ‘zzp’ (‘zelfstandige zonder personeel’ or self-employed without staff).

When you have decided to start your own business a new world is opening up, with a wide variety of possibilities. You could open a shop or start your own consultancy firm; become a full-time or a part-time entrepreneur. Clients may wish to hire you for advice or construction work.
Before plucking up which is planted, there is a time to plant. In other words: you will have to be prepared to tackle challenges as well – either as a provider of services or products, as a self-employed entrepreneur, a sole trader, an independent contractor, or as a freelancer or so-called “ZZP-er”.

The risky side of freedom and independence

Whether you offer services or products: you will do so at your own risk, expense and with full responsibility towards third parties. As well as this, being self-employed entails certain obligations, such as paying taxes and VAT and keeping records of your business activities. Preparing well is the best way to start. You are definitely not on your own; the Dutch business world offers plenty of competent assistance.

Starting point

Before you visit the Chamber of Commerce to register your enterprise, you should have considered the following:

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value
The Ministry of Economic Affairs awards points for each criterion. You will need a minimum of 30 points for each criterion (total number for all criteria: 300).

The scoring system consists of three parts:

a) Personal experience (education, experience as a self-employed person, working experience);
b) Business plan (market analysis, product/service, price, organisation, financing);
c) Material economic purpose for the Netherlands (innovative, job creation, investments).

You should always contact the IND to find out about the procedure involved in testing the economic interest of the enterprise you intend to start. For nationals of some countries, for example Turkey, special rules apply on the basis of treaties between the EU and these countries. And when you are from the United States of America, it is important to know there is the so-called Nederland-Amerikaans’ vriendschapsverdrag’.

Taking your business from abroad

The Dutch comparative companies Act recognises all foreign legal entities except businesses owned by one man or one woman. If you run a one-person business in your country of origin and you can prove this, for example by submitting a copy of registration in a commercial register in that country, you can bring this enterprise to the Netherlands and have it registered at the Chamber of Commerce as a Dutch one-man or -woman business.

Other legal foreign entities or foreign business forms are simply registered as a foreign legal entity with commercial activities.

Please note that you will still have to comply with the IND residency rules

Starting a branch office in the Netherlands

There is a question of a branch when long-lasting business operations, which form part of the foreign enterprise, are (being) conducted in the Netherlands. A branch can be: a sales office or a production company, but also a representative office. It does not have an independent legal form, but is a part of the foreign enterprise.

Dutch law recognises foreign legal entities. In other words: the foreign legal entity wishing to start activities in the Netherlands needs not be converted into a Dutch legal form.

A business plan is essential

No matter small or big the business is, a business plan will help you identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.

Banks require a business plan when you take out a loan. Even if you do not need the latter, and financing your enterprise is not a problem, a business plan will definitely help you understand the impact of starting a business. Submitting a business plan is also one of the criteria set for non-EU and non-EEA nationals to be allowed to start their own enterprise in the Netherlands.

Get started: Write the plan yourself

Crucial questions you should ask are:

* Which legal form will best suit the enterprise?
* Which products or services will you offer?
* Who will be your clients?
* Promotional activities to get contracts?
* How to optimize visibility to your target group?
* Which prices and fees?
* Financial plan (available budgets, expected turnover, investments)?
* Which insurances do you need?
* Permits and/or licences required?
* Administrational organisation, which form?
* What should be included in your General Terms and Conditions if applicable?

Formats

Business plan formats can be obtained from various private parties that specialise in supporting starters. Just surf the internet. Small business planner at http://www.sba.gov/ is a useful site.

Employment law issue: employed or self-employed?

If you go freelance, you should pay extra attention to your situation, because the term ‘freelancer’ is not a definition recognized by law. Freelancers operate somewhere in between being self-employed and being in paid employment.

As an independent entrepreneur you pay taxes and contributions yourself, and you are not entitled to rights employers are: minimum wage, paid holidays, a holiday allowance, statutory safeguards against dismissal and a statutory notice period.

In order to designate the employment relationship while starting your business, it is important to consider different contracts and apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration.

Employment on the basis of a contract and implied employment

Regardless of the title chosen for the contract with your client, it is considered an employment contract if the following criteria are met:

* your remuneration for the work performed can be seen as wages;
* there is an obligation to do the work yourself: you cannot send someone else to do the job for you. Having to be available for specific work, e.g. on-call service, will also be considered as work performed in employment;
* a relationship of authority: the employer can determine where, when and how the work should be carried out. This relation also exists if the work you do is an essential element in the employer’s business operations or if the employer’s profitability is at risk without you.

If the working relation does not show all characteristics of a “proper” employment relation, it may still be seen as one. This is called a notional employment relationship: although the employment relation has not been established explicitly, there is an implicit employer-employee relation. Consequently, the fee you charge is seen as wage, so, the employer will have to deduct taxes from your wages and pay national insurance and employee insurance contributions.

A notional employment relation exists if:

* you work for a client project for at least at two days a week;
* you earn more than 40% of the minimum wages for the project a week;
* the relation with the client lasts more than 30 days; a new contract within one month after the termination of the first contract is seen as continuation of the previous contract.

A notional employment does not exist if actual and practical independence can be proven, for which a VAR can be instrumental.

Commercial contracts

As a self-employed entrepreneur you or your client can initiate to formalise the contractor-client relation by entering into a commercial contract. Parties should always insist on putting down the arrangements agreed upon.
There are two types of commercial contracts:
1. Service agreement – Under this type of contract you are obliged to perform to the best of your ability, committing yourself to do your client’s work without being employed by him. The work is usually classified as services’.
2. Contractor agreement – Under this type of contract you have a specific target obligation. You commit yourself to produce a concrete, tangible object at a certain price.

Criteria for legal independence: Actual circumstances are decisive here. An official statement signed by client and yourself that the contract is a commercial one is helpful proof. Criteria are:

* the degree of independence and absence of supervision/authority;
* permanence;
* pursuit of profit;
* clientele.

Not just these criteria, but their interconnection especially plays a decisive role.

De Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR)

In order to designate the employment relationship you can apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration. The VAR is an official statement. Based upon the applicant’s information the Tax Administration will define income as:

* Income earned in employment: the freelancer will have a VAR income.
* Income earned from other proceedings: the freelancer will have a VAR-row.
* Profit from enterprise: the freelancer will have a VAR-wuo.
* Partnership’s own risk and account: the freelancer will have a VAR-dga.

VAR-income and -row: employed or not?

With a view to the VAR-income and row, the employer will have to define and check whether he should pay income tax and employees insurance premiums, based upon the existence of an employment contract or otherwise. Explanatory assistance but no definite answer! – can be found at the website of the Ministry of Finance. The Tax Administration may conclude differently.

VAR-wuo and dga: certainty in advance

Only VAR-wuo or -dga supply the employer beforehand with complete financial certainty provided he meets the following conditions:

* The freelancer’s activities should be similar to the VAR’s description. So, the freelancer is not entitled to carry out IT work if the VAR denotes carpentry.
* The freelancer is on the job during the validity of the VAR (1 calendar year).
* The VAR should be the authentic original.
* The employer should determine the freelancer’s identity on the basis of a valid proof of identity (not driver’s licence). Copies of the VAR and proof of identity should be kept in the administration for seven years.

Having acted this way, the employer has a solid defence in case the Tax Administration or UWV may reach another verdict afterwards. So, it may be wise for both freelancers and employers to object against a VAR-income or -row.

VAR application

Bearing in mind the utmost importance of the VAR-outcome, it is obviously important to carefully fill out the VAR-form. Only the freelancer him/herself is allowed to apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR); the employer is not entitled to do this. A directeur-groot aandeelhouder (DGA) should apply for a VAR in case of external consultancy.

The Tax Administration provides a digital VAR application form; to which you will get a reply within 8 weeks. If additional information is needed, the Tax Administration will contact the applicant.

Please note the following when filling out the form: The Tax Administration considers request as a total, coherently, and takes the activities into account. If not all answers are favourable it does not necessarily mean that no VAR-wuo will be given. For example: an interim manager with two or more employers can still be entitled to a VAR-wuo.

The freelancer should write down reasonable expectations. If, however, the actual situation afterwards turns out to have been differently, this will not have any consequences as long as the deviation is within normal risk of enterprise limits. For example, the freelancer expected to have 3 or more employers, but due to a recession this turned out differently.

The freelancer has to fill out the form to the best of his knowledge and should not deliberately misrepresent the state of affairs. If this should afterwards be proven to have been the case, the Tax Administration will recover the indebted taxes and premiums from the freelancer.

Some of the questions need a yes’ or no’ only; choose the nearest suitable.

Relation employer/former employer

As a part-time independent entrepreneur / part-time employee you could get involved in a conflict of interest with your (former) employer. If you intend to provide services, comparable to the ones he provides, you better ask his permission/advice to run your own business.

Starting a business as a full-time independent entrepreneur you should be aware of a possible conflict of interests as well. You probably signed a non-competition clause within your employment contract that remains valid after termination of employment. In any case it is wise to contact/consult your (former) employer of your intentions.

Legal forms and registration of an enterprise

The Chambers of Commerce can answer your questions about the legal environment of your business. Seminars and other regular services are available.

The majority of starting entrepreneurs either choose a one-man business or a general partnership as the legal form for their business, according to their preference on doing business by themselves or in cooperation with others.

In order to accommodate the starting entrepreneur or professional, Dutch law recognizes various legal forms, such as a one-man business, a private limited company (BV), a partnership or a limited partnership. The main issues at stake are the matter of liability if your enterprise should run up debts, and which tax regime applies.

One-person business

One-person business (lit. one-man in Dutch: eenmanzak) is also referred to as sole trader or sole proprietorship or independent contractor.

If you start a one-person business you will be the fully independent founder and owner. More than one person may work in a one-person business, but there can only be one owner. A one-person business can also employ personnel.

Setting up

You can establish a one-person business without a notarial deed. Registration in the Trade Register is mandatory. As a private individual you can only register one one-man business. However, you can have more than one trade name and carry out various business activities under different trade names. These activities can be carried out at the same or at another address, as a branch office of the one-man business.

Liability

As the owner of a one-person business you are responsible for everything concerning your enterprise; for every legal act and all its assets and liabilities. No distinction is made between private and business property. Thus, business creditors can seek recovery from your private property and private creditors from your business property. If your one-man business goes bankrupt, you yourself go bankrupt as well.

If the owner of a one-person business should be married in a community of property regime, the creditors may also lay claim to the partner’s property. Partner liability can be avoided by a prenuptial or a postnuptial agreement drafted by a civil-law notary. However, since partners are usually requested to co-sign when taking a loan, the agreement may not offer the protection expected. A civil-law notary can provide more information.

Taxes and social security

The profit made in a one-person business is taxed in box 1 income tax. If the Tax Administration fully considers you an entrepreneur, you are entitled to tax allowances such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

The owner of a one-person business cannot claim social benefits under the Sickness Benefits Act, the Work and Income Act and the Unemployment Insurance Act. Therefore, it is advisable to take out insurances to cover these risks. You will qualify for the following national insurance schemes:

* General Old Age Pensions Act
* -Surviving Dependants Act
* Exceptional Medical Expenses Act
* General Child Benefit Act

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

With a one-man business no distinction is made between private and business. If you die, both business and private property will fall into your heirs’ estate. You will need to make provisions to guarantee your business’ continuity. A tax consultant could provide more details.

B. General partnership, the “VOF”

A general partnership is a form of cooperation in which you run a business with one or more business partners. You and your partner(s) are the associates or members of the general partnership. One of the characteristics of this legal form is that each partner contributes something to the business: capital, goods, efforts (work) and/or goodwill.

Setting up

A partnership contract is not a statutory requirement for the formation of a general partnership, but it is, of course, advisable to put down in writing what you and your business partner(s) have agreed upon. A partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* name of the general partnership;
* objective;
* contributions by partners in capital, knowhow, goodwill, assets and efforts (work);
* distribution of profits and offset of loss;
* allocation of powers;
* arrangements in case of illness;
* arrangements for a partner’s days off/ holiday.

Liability

An important characteristic of the general partnership is the joint and separate liability of the partners. Each partner can be held fully liable – including private property – if the general partnership fails to meet its obligations, even if these obligations were entered into by another, authorised partner. Creditors of the partnership may seek recovery from your business property and your private property and the property of the other partner(s). Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal effectiveness towards third parties.

The general partnership usually has separate capital’, i.e. the business capital contributed by the partners, which is kept apart from their private property and capital. This capital is to be solely used for business purposes. Should one or more creditors seek recovery from the partnership – for instance in the case of bankruptcy – they could do so from the separate capital. If this should be inadequate to pay the partnership’s debts, creditors may seek full recovery from the partners’ private property. If so, you could hold the other partner(s) liable for having failed to meet their obligations, but only after the creditors have been paid. In private matters creditors of partners cannot seek recovery from the partnership’s business assets or the private property of the other partner(s).

Because of this partners’ broad liability it is advisable to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted if you are married under a community of property regime. A civil-law notary could provide you with more information.

Taxes and social security

Each partner will pay their own income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to all kinds of tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply for the entrepreneur partner as for the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the general partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the general partnership, the partners can include a clause in the partnership contract arranging for the other partners to continue the general partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

C. Limited partnership, the “CV”

A limited partnership, the “CV”, is a special type of general partnership (VOF). The difference is that the CV has two types of business partners: general, and limited or sleeping partners. The latter are only financially involved; they cannot act on behalf of the partnership. Besides, the name of a limited partner cannot be used in the trade name of the limited partnership.

Setting up

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for a limited partnership, but, again, partners better put down the agreements. Apart from the matters mentioned in the VOF, the contract should arrange the distribution of profit between general and limited partners. When registering a limited partnership in the Trade Register, the personal details of the general partners are listed; the details concerning the limited partners are restricted to total number and their contributions in the partnership.

Liability

General partners can be held fully liable if the partnership fails to meet its obligations. Bankruptcy of the limited partnership will automatically lead to the general partners’ bankruptcy (not applicable to limited partners). A limited partner can only be held liable to the maximum sum contributed to the partnership. However, should the limited partner act on behalf of the partnership, he will be seen as a general partner and fully liable, in which case creditors of the partnership can lay claim on his private property as well. Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal force towards third parties.

The general partners’ liability in a limited partnership is quite broad, so, if partners are married under a community of property regime they are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security

General partners pay income tax on their share in the profit. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-person business. Limited partners, who cannot be held personally liable for the enterprise’s debts, are not seen as entrepreneurs by the Tax Administration.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the limited partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the limited partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

D. Professional partnership, the maatschap’

The partnership referred to as maatschap’ under Dutch law differs from the general partnership and the limited partnership in that it is a form of cooperation established by professionals such as doctors, dentist, lawyers, accountants, physiotherapists etc., rather than a cooperation established for the purpose of doing business. The partners are referred to as maten’ instead of partners’. Each maat’ contributes personal efforts, capital and/or assets. The purpose is to share the income earned on the one hand and the expenses incurred on the other.
Setting up a professional partnership

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for the formation of a professional partnership, but partners better lay down their agreements with the other professionals in a partnership contract. This partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* contributions made by the partners;
* distribution of profits, pro rata each partner’s contribution – distributing all profit to one partner is not allowed;
* allocation of powers – each partner is entitled to perform management acts, unless agreed upon otherwise; as of 1 July 2008 the professional partnership has to register in the Trade Register. This does not apply to partnerships that only act internally, such as a partnership in which costs are pooled.

Liability

Each authorised partner can enter into a contract, thus binding the partnership: all partners. Each partner can be held liable for an equal part. If a partner should act beyond his authorization, the other partners will in principle not be held liable: the partner in question is the only partner that has bound himself. A professional partnership has no separate capital’ from the private assets of the partners. Creditors having a claim on the partnership can only seek recovery for equal parts from the individual partners; these creditors do not rank above creditors who have a claim on the private assets of a partner. To a married partner the same reservations apply as to the general partners in general partnerships and limited partnerships. They are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security
Each partner pays income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, he is entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. Regarding social security the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-man business

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the professional partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

E. Private company with limited liability, BV’

In contrast to the legal forms described above – enterprises run by natural persons – the private limited is a legal person: a person having rights and obligations, just like a natural person. The natural person who has incorporated the private limited cannot be held liable, in principle, for the debts incurred by the private limited. The BV itself is seen as the entrepreneur, whereas the natural person who is appointed director merely acts on behalf of the BV and cannot be held personally liable for his acts. A private limited company can be incorporated by one person a sole shareholder BV or by more persons. The capital of a private limited is divided in shares.

Incorporating

This involves a number of statutory requirements, most important of which:
Incorporation takes place through a notarial deed. This should include the articles of association of the company. The civil-law notary will check the legal contents of the articles.
A certificate of no-objection from the Ministry of Justice must be submitted before the incorporation can be effected. The Ministry checks whether the person incorporating the company has ever been involved in bankruptcy proceedings or fraud cases.

The incorporation of a BV requires a minimum capital of EUR 18,000 (cash or in kind) in the private limited.

Liability

The shareholder’s liability is limited to the total sum of his participation. Since the BV is a legal person, having its own independent rights and obligations, the persons involved – directors and supervisors – cannot be held liable for the debt of the company. In other words: the company’s creditors can never seek recovery from the private assets of these officers. However, a company director or officer may be held liable as a private person if he has acted negligently or culpably. If they are responsible for the company’s bankruptcy because of wrongful or fraudulent behaviour in the company’s policy, creditors of the company may file a claim against them.

In the formation phase of the company, a director may be liable for the company’s acts. This liability ends as soon as the legal person is incorporated and the acts are confirmed by the company. As long as the company has not been registered in the Trade Register, directors’ and officers’ liability continues. In practice, limited liability often does not apply because banks require the director and principal shareholder of the company to co-sign for loans taken out on behalf of the BV.

Taxes and social security

The private limited pays corporation tax also referred to as company income tax on the profits earned. The BV’s director and shareholder are employed by the BV His eligibility for social security under the Dutch social security laws depends on the relation of authority between himself and the private limited. A relation of authority is considered not to exist if:

* the director, possibly with his or her spouse, can cast more than 50% of the votes in the shareholders’ meeting;
* two thirds or more of the shares are held by the director and/or close relatives up to the third degree;
* the director cannot be dismissed against their will.

Without a relation of authority, the director and shareholder cannot rely on the social security insurances. He will have to take out his own insurances; to him the same rules apply as to the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Continuation of the company is secured by the fact that the BV is a legal person that exists independently from the persons having incorporated or managing the private limited. When the director dies, the continuation of the enterprise is not at risk, viz. the enterprise is run by the BV and a new director will have to be appointed.

A private limited can be sold in two different ways:

* BV’s shares are sold;
* BV’s enterprise (machines, inventory, stocks, etc.) is sold.

If the shares are sold, the proceeds are subject to income tax (box 2) if the shareholder has a substantial interest (holder of a minimum of 5% of the shares).

If the enterprise is sold, the BV will have to pay corporation tax on the profit or book profit on the sale. If the shareholder of the BV selling the enterprise is a BV itself, the structure is referred to as a holding – advantage of which: the holding will in principle have to pay taxes on the proceeds.

Registration of your enterprise

Before you are allowed to start your business operations, you have to register your enterprise in the Dutch Trade Register, which is administered by the Chambers of Commerce. Registrations in the Trade Register are public; everyone can check whether a particular person is authorised to act on behalf of an enterprise and which legal form it has: a one-man business, a partnership or a private or public limited.

The Chamber of Commerce could run a trade name investigation for you to make sure that the selected trade name does not infringe the rights of other enterprises. This trade name investigation is not free of charge.

Holland Gateway (the cooperation of the Netherlands Chambers of Commerce, Ministry of Economic Affairs and other official institutions) is located at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. This bureau promotes the ease of doing business in the Netherlands.

How to register your enterprise

Registration requirements

Once you have decided upon your business’ legal form, you can have your enterprise registered at the local Chamber of Commerce. Registration should take place within a period of one week preceding, and one week following the actual commencement of business activities.

Without registration in the GBA, you will need to submit authenticated proof of your residential address abroad. The person registering the business has to submit a valid proof of identity, which document has to be personally submitted at the Chamber of Commerce. The following documents are accepted as valid IDs:

* a valid travel document (passport or European ID card);
* a valid Dutch driving licence (non-Dutch driving licence not accepted);
* a residence permit issued by the IND;
* a Dutch refugee passport
* a Dutch aliens passport

If you do not start your business at your home address but at a location you have e.g. rented, you will also be requested to show the lease to confirm the business address.

Once the registration has been completed, you will be given a unique eight-figure registration number. This KvK number should be referred to on all your outgoing mail. Free of charge, you will receive an extract of your registration, a KvK-uittreksel'(excerpt).

Who can register the enterprise

When an enterprise is registered at the Chamber of Commerce, it is of the utmost importance that the registration forms which are submitted have been signed by the right person. Depending on the legal form of the enterprise, the forms can be registered in the Trade Register by:

* the owner of the one-man business (registration of a one-man business),
* the partners (registration of a general partnership, VOF, and a professional partnership, maatschap’)
* or the general partners (registration of a limited partnership, CV’)
* If the enterprise is a legal person, a BV, the civil-law notary will usually see to the registration formalities.

The persons who should register the enterprise and sign the registration forms can also be held responsible in the event an enterprise is not registered.

In special circumstances other persons may be authorized and/or obliged to see to the registration of an enterprise. The Chamber of Commerce can advise you on these circumstances.

Registration forms

The registration forms can be downloaded from the Chamber of Commerce website. As a statutory requirement, all forms are in Dutch and have to be completed in Dutch. Translations in English of forms 6, 11 and 13 are available to assist you while filling in the Dutch form to be handed in.
Registration is not free of charge. When you register a business, a fee will be due for the calendar year the enterprise is registered in. After that initial year, an annual fee will be charged in the first quarter of each year. The total sum of this contribution depends on the legal form.

After registration

Once the enterprise has been registered, it is the owner or partner’s responsibility to keep the information up-to-date. With a BV the manager authorised to act on behalf of the BV is responsible.

Permits and Licences

Most business activities can be performed without any permits or licences, but for some activities, like catering business, transport or taxi firm, you do need a licence. And an environmental permit may be required if your products or business operations negatively affect the environment. Permits and licences can be applied for at the municipality or at the provincial authorities.

Check how you can use your degree or diploma for your business in the Netherlands. International Credential Evaluation: http://www.idw.nl/international-credential-evaluation.html

Some sectors require registration with an industry board or a product board. Registration is a statutory requirement, based on the Act on Business Organisations. An industry board is a kind of interest group for a specific sector. The same applies to a product board, which includes all enterprises in a production chain, from producers of raw material to manufacturers of end products.

Termination / dissolution of the enterprise

When transferring or selling your company, you will have to comply with a number of rules and regulations. You should also enter information about the sale into the Trade Register and reach a settlement with the Tax and Customs Administration. A business transfer within the family involves several other tax aspects.

Expatica will publish Becoming a self-employed entrepreneur the Netherlands (part 1) on Sunday 27 February.

Chambers of Commerce
The Dutch Chambers of Commerce provide information on starting a business, legal forms, registration in the trade register, international trade etc. We have accumulated knowledge, contacts and partnerships, which makes it the essential reference point for every firm doing or seeking to do business.

Drop by for specific information
Apart from general information, the Chambers of Commerce will be glad to provide you with further details regarding your specific position: either at the start of your business or while running it.

If you are located and/or interested in the Region Amsterdam:
Do call 020-5314684 for a consultation with one of our specialists of the Bedrijfsvoorlichting department.

The-symbolic dragon tattoos

Dragon tattoos

Dragon tattoos are widespread around the world. At present more than thirty percents of people that are intending to ink, a tattoo ink select dragon tattoos. Possibly the reason for such remarkable acclaim is that dragons are representations of several legends in nearly all cultures. Dragons may possibly have multiple personality, but they are definitely powerful creatures. The other reason possibly could be that there are numerous patterns of dragon tattoos that differ in design and in significance. But there are two main types of dragon tattoos: Western dragon and Eastern dragon.

The importance of Eastern dragon tattoos is always favorable. In Chinese mysticism dragon is a sign of integrity and knowledge. In the East dragon tattoos are exceptionally fashionable. They highlight the wisdom and are oftentimes made as talismans. In China, people perceive that dragon tattoos designs bring good luck and pleasure.

Western dragon is also an important character of multiple legends and myths. But mostly it’s significance far from positive. In European legends, dragons were powerful but dangerous creatures. They ruined villages with fire and were usually concerned with greed.

But in Britain there was completely different frame of mind to dragons. Dragons were regarded as sacred characters in Celtic myths and they quite often represented Britons. So, there is a specific type of tattoo design – Welsh dragons tattoos that usually reveal the proud for past and Celtic origin of the owner. These tattoo designs have positive meaning and are broadly existed in Britain and Europe. But, as per all beliefs and legends we know that dragons are very powerful. Possibly, they are the most recognized legendary characters in the world. Mentions of dragons are usually found in all cultures and not depending on the connotation dragons are always greatly appreciated and dragon tattoos designs – wonderfully accepted. Nor less important is the great variety of dragon tattoos designs. They are created in entirely distinct patterns and colors. You could choose common Chinese dragon tattoos or stylish tribal design; dragon tattoos could possibly be designed in traditional black ink or in bright colors. Everyone could get a dragon tattoo for himself or produce a separate design. And this is undoubtedly another grounds for dragon tattoos acclaim. But the importance of such tattoo is always personal. Several people form dragon tattoos as a symbol of strength and might. Others attach it with learning and believe that a dragon tattoo highlights their intellect. But overall a dragon tattoo is always a form of statement. It reflects individual’s personality and will. In certain traditions, these tattoo inks also present respect for traditions of ascendants.

Dragon tattoos are ordinarily rather huge and are generally formed bright. Dragon tattoos are used as back tattoo work – than the dragon is designed on the size of the entire back.

The Valley Nefcerka – Hidden Secrets in Central Europe

The focal point of this article is to draw attention to some of the most preserved parts of nature in Europe – the Nefcerka Valley is one of them. A possible devastation around this valley is very harmful for nature. Some people and governments have always had difficulties to respect the fact that living in harmony with nature is the only priority for our future.

Slovakia lies in the center of Central Europe and many tourists, among whom Americans are not any exceptions, find it really attractive. One of the world’s youngest (in the geographical terminology) mountain range called the Tatras or the High Tatras (Vysoke Tatry) lies in the heart of this small country. The arrangement of these mountains is very dense, which means that in the Alps (Austria, Switzerland-), for example, there is a bigger distance between particular peaks. The High Tatras peaks are condensed and thus exceptionally attractive. In these mountains, you can make most of any touristic trips just in one day and you can see all the loveliness of nature hidden within the woods and the rocks.

The history of these mountains started some 500 million years ago and they are part of the Carpathian mountain ranges. Later, after these mountains emerged from the Mesozoic ocean some 80 million years ago, they started to be formed on the surface.

Scientists have proofs that prehistoric people dwelt in the caves of the Belianske Tatry and there are also some sources that say that when the village Novy Smokovec was founded, workers dig out a silver coin with the portrait of Marcus Aurelius.

The Tatras can be divided to the Western Tatras, the High Tatras, and the Belianske Tatras. This mountain range is in the north of Slovakia and Poland owns part of it too. The deceased John Paul II loved these mountains and he often visited them as a priest before he became the Pope. The highest Tatras are the High Tatras, where the Gerlach Peak (2,655 meters above the sea level) is the highest peak in Slovakia. The Belianske Tatras have a lot of caves and it is possible that ancient dwellers lived here, as there are prehistoric proofs found in some caves (an ancient stone axe, for example).

Matej Bel (1684 – 1723), a Slovak Lutheran pastor, one of the greatest scholars of the 18th century (Slovakia was under the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) wrote a big work entitled Notitia Hungariae novae historico – geografica, which got even beyond the borders of the then Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The work popularized the geographical splendor of the Tatras, as part of it was also a precious map and a lot of information about the Slovak geography. Thus, some famous European scholars visited the Tatras, probably being also inspired by Jean Jacque Rousseau’s ideas about the benefits if people come back to nature and identify with it. Some of these were Gran Wahlenberg (a Swedish naturalist), Robert Townson, and many others.

The High Tatras had some mining history too. The first mining activities started in the 15th century. Under the government of Matej Korvin (1458 – 1490), mining tunnels were built in the height of about 2000 meters and less around the Krivan Peak. But even in spite of the great enthusiasm, the results were not so good as expected. Some people say that gold can be found in these tunnels even today, but with bears around and going deep into the darkness on one’s knees only is quite dangerous.

The contemporary Tatras

Presently, the High Tatras are under the protection of TANAP, which is the Tatras National Park (established in 1949). The High Tatras have always had a good spa history, as the weather and overall nature with breathtaking vegetation is incredibly healthy for people with breathing diseases.

In 1970, the World Ski Championship took place in the High Tatras and from till then quite a modest and to the world unknown place an attractive tourist place with cableways and good transportation developed all over the region. The Western and Belianske Tatras are exception.

As these are real mountains, the weather can change any time with harsh effects. If you go up into the hills and the sun is shining, always expect that hailstones can fall on your head in a few minutes. Tourists should never forget to put a wind-jacket in their packsacks and good shoes on their feet. Some years ago, a calamity occurred in the High Tatras, as the wind was so strong that it literally cut off many trees from surface. Some wood industry companies want to take these fallen trees out of the woods even from the most protected areas.

The Valley Nefcerka – Why Are You Crying?

As the High Tatras is the national park, some activities are not permitted. Some places, too, are prohibited to see. The Valley Nefcerka is one of them and let me just describe why.

This valley lies above the lower situated and neighboring Koprova dolina (valley); it is under the Krivan Peak; the route to the Valley Nefcerka is not visible. It is the most protected reservation in Slovakia and it has wild nature unique in all Europe. It officially does not have a touristic access. As it has been preserved this way for a quite long time, there may be yet some unknown species of flora and fauna not observable anywhere in the world. The valley starts with woods, then follow dwarf pines, a howling waterfall, the Krivan’s wall on the right hand and the rocks everywhere; then you can see the dark blue mountain lakes with the clearest water in the world. The valley ends with the ridge of the Furkotsky Peaks accessible from a different valley (Furkotska Valley, with mountain lakes carrying the name of the above-mentioned Swedish naturalist – Wahlenberg’s lakes). The Nefcerka Valley has three mountain lakes called Terianske lakes (deep up to 47 meters) and the Nefcersky stream runs out of them. In the Valley Nefcerka, there is the Nefcerka Waterfall high almost as a 30-floor building. The valley’s name is probably derived from the Neftzer family lineage, which took care of the royal property from the year 1695 up to 1762.

On the web of TANAP, the Valey Nefcerka is specifically mentioned as one of the areas that rock climbers are not allowed to enter: http://www.tanap.org/en/climbing.php

Nefcerka can be seen from the Krivan Peak, which is freely reachable by tourists (some 4 hours from Strbske pleso – a ski center): http://www.summitpost.org/image/270225/154957/valley-nefcerka.html

From animals living in such hidden places like this nature’s jewel I describe here, we can mention eagle, Eurasian lynx, marmot, but also many others such as viper, chamois, bear, wild cat- Among the ones that is very special is Branchinecta paludosa (a creature from the class of primitive and primarily fresh water crustaceans). This is a water creature that has one special attribute – it does not live anywhere in the world except Greenland, Siberia, Scandinavia- Then we have thousands of miles and we suddenly find it in the High Tatras. This ice relict lives only in two High Tatras lakes and one of them is said to be the higher Furkotske lake (pleso) in the Furkotska Valley – a neighbor of Nefcerka. A source in Wikipedia has a little information too: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatra_National_Park%2C_Slovakia

Of the flora, we can also mention some interesting plants. One of such species is Erysimum wahlenbergii, which was discovered by the above-mentioned Swedish scholar and which carries his name. This plant grows up to the length of one meter and it has yellow flowers like wild radish. This kind of the plant class has not been found anywhere in the world.

More information about the High Tatras (as well as about the above-mentioned Gran Wahlenberg and Robert Tounson) can be found in the English Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Tatras

Conclusion

I remember visiting the Valley Nefcerka with my father in 1968. It has been one of the most vivid experiences I have ever had, as the Soviet army entered aggressively our country (Czechoslovakia at that time) exactly on that day in August. As we were coming back, we listened to the radio. Even at that time, no cars were allowed to push their wheels to the Koprova and Ticha Valley. Now too, the access to the Valley Nefcerka is not given to anybody except for special purposes (scientific ones, etc.).

Is the heavy machinery allowed to go just as near as the Valley Nefcerka to cut off and take away the fallen trees only because it yields profit? The noise these machines produce is to the nature’s ears the same what the heavy artillery to human ears. Yet, we have a law that if someone destroys a nest of a protected bird he or she is sentenced to prison. Can the heavy machines come here, scare the animals, or even destroy birds’ nests built in the area of the fallen trees? The Valley Ticha, which is neighboring with Valley Koprova, has its website and you can see pictures of these machines here: http://www.ticha.sk/zhrnutie.htm

If anybody would like to visit Slovakia, it is a good idea to start with Slovak websites. There is much more than the Valley Nefcerka in the High Tatras. Quite a famous Slovak artist, Julius Koller, installed a UFO Gallery on one of the High Tatras’ mountains. The Ganek Peak is inaccessible to all but expert climbers. The idea with the UFO Gallery and the stars being attached to climbers’ eyes helps to find a new dimension.

There is quite a good website for finding an accommodation within a wide spectrum of hotels and various cheaper places in villages even near or in the High Tatras. If someone would like to visit the Tatras or just Slovakia, this Slovak website would help: http://www.prenocuj.sk/. It has a good database of accommodation offers in Slovakia. In Slovak, -accommodation- is -ubytovanie- and it is easy, if you are here, to ask people in an Internet caf about the meaning of various words that you do not understand.

The Valley Nefcerka is the most eye-catching thing I have ever seen. I remember one Frenchman, while visiting the Krivan Peak, as he said on the top of it: -This is the most beautiful scenery I have ever seen in my life-. I agree with him.

Juraj’s Hindu, esoteric, and computer karma at www.freebsd.nfo.sk

Employment Agencies

Employment agencies are the ones that provide succour to many. They are the new age messiahs, that provide lot of hope and make many dreams come true. There are many types of employment agencies segregated by their vocational concentration. Some deal with IT, some administration and some sales. Apart from these there are some that cater exclusively for the Government departments.

These agencies charge a fee for their services and the same varies from one agency to the other and also from one customer to another. Generally most of the employment agencies have many companies as their clients. They are responsible for scouring out ideal employees for these companies. Employment agencies make use of marketing or cold calling to get potential candidates for their clients. A good curriculum vita with all the necessary prerequisites marketed by employment translates into a powerful calling card for the applicants. Cold calling is systematically calling different companies and attempting to sell employment services.

A good employment agency has a good reputation with its clients and the following points to be branded as one that can be relied on:
Possesses good experience or has employees that are experienced enough to serve in the best possible manner.
Always advertise your specific area of employment such as healthcare, or executives or skilled engineers. Employers tend to hire agencies that are specialized in seeking out qualified employees in a particular vocation.
Job seekers that have been laid off or those that may need help in tweaking their skills or their resumes might find it helpful to approach employment agencies that offer to give them training assistance so that they find it successful in finding a job. Many of these agencies offer free computer and other technical classes to increase the skill levels of applicants.
Always remember you need to account for the fees you charge from your clients. Therefore be transparent when accounting for your charges or services. Companies may disapprove if there are hidden charges that might catch them unawares. Until the job is done do not bill a company and detail in the bill what the charges are for. Some agencies provide their services free to applicants but bill employers for the services rendered.
Always spell out your terms and contracts in the best way possible to avoid misunderstandings. Its always best to be a thorough professional agency with the best services rather than one that is good but with hidden charges. Beware of such a reputation. It will ruin you in the long run.
Employment agencies may cost money, but they decrease the work load tremendously.

Common Labor And Employment Laws

There are more than 180 federal and state employment and labor laws that apply to employers and employees in Irvine, California.

That is why it is important to get the help of an experienced Irvine labor and employment lawyer if you feel that some of your rights have been violated in the workplace.

But to help you understand some of the laws that apply to your rights in the workplace, here is a summary of some of the most basic labor and employment laws:

Wages and Hours

The Fair Labor Standards Act sets the standard in paying wages and overtime hours covered.

In California, the minimum wage is set at $8 per hour.

Workers are also only required to work 8 hours a day or an equivalent of 40 hours per week.

All work done outside the required 40 hours should be paid as overtime.

Family and Medical Leave Act

This law gives qualified employees the benefit of getting unpaid leaves of up to 12 weeks without the threat of losing their job.

However, the qualified employee may only take advantage of this law for the following causes:

Caring for a family member (spouse, children or parents) who have a serious illness
Giving birth
Taking care and forming a bond with a newborn or adopted child

In California, employees may take advantage of the Paid Family Leave Program together with this law to receive some income while on leave.

Workers Compensation

This law provides payments to employees who are injured on the job. This applies to workers who are not able to get back to work immediately because the injury left them temporarily disabled.

However, the worker should note that they will also be waiving their right to sue the employer for personal injuries once they take advantage of this benefit.

Employee Benefits Security

The Employee Retirement Income Security Law (ERISA) regulates the pension and welfare benefit given by employers to their employees.

Workplace Safety and Health

The Occupational Safety and Health Act require employers to provide their workers with a safe workplace in accordance with the standards set by the law.

Discrimination Laws

Here are some of the most common federal discrimination laws:

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 This law protects employees from discrimination based on their race, color, national origin and sex. The law applies to recruitment, termination, compensation and benefits, promotion and other areas of employment.
Americans with Disabilities Act Protects qualified employees from discrimination based on their disability or medical condition.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act Protects employees who are aged 40 and above from being discriminated based on their age.
Equal Pay Act Requires that men and women receive the same pay for equal work in the same establishment with similar conditions.

To understand more about these laws you should consult an expert Irvine labor and employment law attorney.

Martin Hormuth Investments in European real estate – the best way of capital securing

The well-known Pinsent Masons law firm published results of a conducted study indicating that the number of so-called investment visas issued to foreigners in Great Britain has increased from 235 in 2010-2011 to 419 in 2011-2012, that is by as much as 78 percent. In 2012, a record was set by the citizens of Russia: they are leaders in terms of visas granted making 24 percent of the total number of successful applicants (for comparison, the Chinese are behind by 1 percent).

Today, many countries offer citizenship in exchange for investments. For instance, until recently Germany had a law in force guaranteeing German citizenship granting for the purchase of commercial real estate or an operating enterprise with a minimum value of EUR 250 thousand as well as providing employment for five persons. At that, the law did not prohibit acquisition of operating enterprises on credit. As of August 1, 2012 the strict requirements to investment amounts were abolished. Two years ago, the corresponding amendments to the immigration law were made also in Latvia. The effect is obvious: from July 2011 to July 2012 the foreign investors have paid for real estate in the country 2.3 times more than during the previous period, says Martin Hormuth, the PHL owner. Recently, the Bulgarian Parliament also voted for the benefits to investors: soon the wealthy people will be able to gain Bulgarian citizenship under a simplified procedure, whereas according to the latest information the investment amount for that is circa EUR 100 thousand. The same amount of investment, i.e. EUR 100 thousand, ensures granting the right of permanent residence in both Romania and Croatia. Hungary keeps pace too: according to the local parliament idea, citizenship of this country shall be granted to those investing EUR 250 thousand.

“Legislation in all these countries provides for quite a loyal attitude and the permanent residence right to investors”, says Martin Hormuth. “Therefore today wealthy citizens of CIS countries prefer to invest in profitable European projects with a promising business plan – this concerns not real estate only, but also office and trade property, as well as construction of recreational facilities. They come to Europe not only to increase their capital, but also to secure it. Investments in the real estate in countries with a stable economy provide for reliability and safety”.

PHL international company headed by Martin Hormuth is well represented in Eastern Europe. 18 building projects in Berlin have been realized with Mr Hormuth’s direct participation, each of them being a success. Recently, a contract involving a retail trade facility in Germany with a payback period of 10 years has been concluded. Martin Hormuth’s company has been engaged in a number of prestigious projects in Europe including a luxury golf resort in the area of 130 ha in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea coast, a shopping centre in Varna, Bulgaria, and other large-scale projects. Martin Hormuth is a recognized expert in the international market. As an honourable and experienced professional in the field of management and development, Martin was involved in large-scale projects of GTC company headed by Mr Eli Alroy.

Martin Hormuth